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Characteristics of Alberta's commercial tree species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub985
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1995
Edition
37360
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Contributor
Alberta Research Council
Date
March 1995
Edition
37360
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Alberta
British Columbia
Populus tremuloides
Populus
Pinus contorta
Pinus banksiana
Pinus
Picea
Black spruce
Betula
Balsam
Aspen
Fir
Series Number
W-1150
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This publication characterizes nine commercial tree species of Alberta. Included are descriptions of the range and volume of each species, their wood properties, and present and potential manufacturing uses.
Populus balsamifera
Populus tremuloides
Betula papyrifera
Abies balsamea
Abies lasiocarpa
Pinus banksiana
Pinus contorta Dougl var. latifolia
Picea mariana
Picea glauca
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A field test of sapstain control products for protection of unseasoned Alberta wood species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41169
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Minchin, D.
Date
March 1998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
), white spruce (Picea glauca) and white birch (Betula papyrifera). Unfortunately
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Minchin, D.
Contributor
Alberta Department of Economic Development and Tourism
Date
March 1998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Alberta
British Columbia
Stain fungal
Stain
Preservatives tests
Preservatives
Preservation
Populus tremuloides
Populus
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Betula
Aspen
Series Number
W-1478
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project was to determine the most effective, environmentally friendly treatments which will protect value-added lumber produced from Alberta wood species from fungal discoloration. This report presents information on selected sapstain control products and the efficacy results after a four-month storage period.
Stains - Fungal
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Fungicides
Populus tremuloides - Preservation
Pinus contorta - Preservation
Betula papyrifera - Preservation
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Impact de marques de caractère sur le rendement au sciage secondaire du bouleau blanc

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5977
Author
Lapointe, M.C.
Brenot, N.
Lihra, T.
Date
March 2003
Edition
42207
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Lapointe, M.C.
Brenot, N.
Lihra, T.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2003
Edition
42207
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Utilization
Secondary manufacturing
Grading
Betula
Series Number
CFS Service Value-Added Report 3660
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
La base de données sur les caractéristiques des sciages nos 1, 2 et 3 "commun" du bouleau blanc, développée pour une étude précédente a été utilisée, après modification, pour la simulation par ordinateur de l’ébauchage des planches. Un carnet de commandes pour la production de panneaux collés sur chant a été utilisé pour la réalisation de simulations par ordinateur. Le logiciel ROMI-CROSS est utilisé à ce fait. Les nœuds sains ont été classés en incréments d'un diamètre de ¼ po, afin de permettre l’évaluation d'impact des noeuds sur le rendement, selon leur taille. Les autres défauts considérés pour cette étude sont : le bois de cœur, le nœud épingle, la coloration, les stries minéraux et la loupe. L’analyse des résultats de simulation révèle une variation en rendement matière significative pour tous les grades et ce, pour toutes les marques de caractère acceptées à l’exception de quelques nœuds sains de certaines tailles. L’étude de l’effet des caractéristiques d’apparence consiste principalement à mener des enquêtes auprès des commerçants et consommateurs d’ameublement lors d’expositions commerciales. Trois expositions ont été retenues pour assurer une couverture canadienne et américaine des deux populations ciblées (commerçants et grand public). Les répondants ont eu à apprécier 9 panneaux comprenant 3 niveaux de qualité suivant l’intensité de marques de caractère et trois niveaux de coloration. L’appréciation des panneaux suit trois critères d’évaluation pour les panneaux, soit leur attrait, leur style et leur valeur. Ensuite, suivent des questions pour l’évaluation d’attributs généraux des meubles et pour la segmentation des répondants en fonction de critères démographiques et occupationnels. Les résultats sont évalués sur une base statistique pour déterminer les différences significatives entre les différentes populations rencontrées.
Secondary manufacturing
Betula - Utilization
Lumber - Defects
Grading - Lumber
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Machining and related mechanical properties of 15 B.C. wood species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5541
Author
Williams, D.
Morris, R.
Date
August 1998
Edition
37485
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Aspen Populus tremuloides Nelson 15.5 0.47 W. White Birch Betula papyrifera var. Prince Rupert 10.0
Author
Williams, D.
Morris, R.
Contributor
Forest Renewal BC.
Date
August 1998
Edition
37485
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
31 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Utilization
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Thuja plicata
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga
Populus tremuloides
Populus
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Mechanical properties
Larix
British Columbia
Betula
Balsam
Aspen
Fir
Series Number
Special Publication ; SP-39
W-1524
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
ISSN
ISSN 0824-2119
Abstract
The recent emphasis on producing higher value secondary wood products in British Columbia requires some changes in the way manufacturers process wood. A basic requirement in assessing whether a wood species is suitable for use as a value-added product is an understanding of the wood's machining characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the planing, turning, shaping, boring, mortising, sanding, and fastening characteristics in clear wood sections for 15 B.C. softwood and hardwood species: 1. Amabilis Fir, 2. Douglas fir, 3. Lodgepole pine, 4. Sitka spruce, 5. Subalpine fir, 6. Western hemlock, 7. Western larch, 8. Western redcedar, 9. Western white pine, 10. Western white spruce, 11. Yellow cedar, 12. Black cottonwood, 13. Red alder, 14. Trembling aspen, 15. Western white birch. This information will aid B.C. secondary wood processors in the design and manufacture of higher value products, and help promote B.C. species and products in domestic and export markets. The study compares the machining properties of individual species within B.C.'s SPF and hem-fir groups demonstrating the benefits of sorting by individual species. In addition, the machining properties of B.C.'s under-utilized species (e.g., trembling aspen, black cottonwood) are compared to those of well established softwood species (e.g., Douglas-fir, western hemlock). Finally, the study determined the average force necessary to withdraw two types of fasteners (nail and screw) from each of the wood species. A tabular presentation of the results is included for easy comparison between species.
Mechanical properties - Machining
British Columbia woods - Utilization
Abies amabilis - Mechanical properties
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Mechanical properties
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Mechanical properties
Picea sitchensis - Mechanical properties
Abies lasiocarpa - Mechanical properties
Tsuga heterophylla - Mechanical properties
Larix occidentalis - Mechanical properties
Thuja plicata - Mechanical properties
Pinus monticola - Mechanical properties
Picea glauca - Mechanical properties
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis - Mechanical properties
Populus trichocarpa - Mechanical properties
Alnus rubra - Mechanical properties
Populus tremuloides - Mechanical properties
Betula papyrifera - Mechanical properties
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Maximiser la valeur du bouleau blanc par la sylviculture et l'utilisation optimale de la ressource : impact de la classification "MSCR" sur le rendement en volume et en valeur des produits

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38979
Author
Duchesne, I.
Date
January 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Duchesne, I.
Date
January 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Yield
Value added
Stands
Silviculture
Betula
Series Number
E-4148
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude évalue l’impact du classement MSCR sur le rendement en volume et en valeur des sciages de bouleau blanc. Ce classement se base sur l’identification des défauts externes de l’arbre sur pied afin d’en évaluer sa vigueur et de déterminer sa priorité de récolte. Le code terrain MSCR signifie que les arbres classés M (Mourir – non growing stock) et S (Survie – poor growing stock) devraient être récoltés en priorité, tandis que les arbres classés C (Conserver – Acceptable growing stock) et R (Réserve – Premium growing stock) devraient être conservés en forêt. En plus de récupérer des volumes de bois en train de se perdre, le but ultime est d’augmenter la qualité des forêts feuillues québécoises à long terme en conservant des arbres vigoureux de qualité pour le futur. Cent bouleaux blancs matures et surannés, échantillonnés dans un peuplement situé dans les Hautes-Laurentides, ont été marqués selon le système de classification MSCR. Les arbres ont été sélectionnés pour obtenir un nombre adéquat d’arbres dans chaque classe MSCR. Des 100 arbres échantillonnés, 59 ont produit des billes de qualité sciage (F-1, F-2, F-3, billon). Les 41 arbres restants ont été classés qualité « pâte ». Parmi ces derniers, 27 étaient classés M (mourir), 7 S (survie), 5 C (conserver) et 2 R (réserve). Les 100 bouleaux blancs ont majoritairement produit des billes de sciage de faible qualité (F-3) pour les classes d’arbres S, C et R. Pour les arbres en perdition (M), environ 70 % du volume des tiges livrées à l’usine a été classé impropre au sciage lors du mesurage (c. à d. qualité « pâte »). Pour les 3 autres catégories d’arbres, le pourcentage de bois à pâte variait entre 23 et 33 % du volume. Bien que les diamètres des arbres surannés de cette étude aient été importants (35 cm), les billes de qualité supérieure (F-1) étaient pratiquement inexistantes. L’étude démontre qu’il faut environ deux fois plus d’arbres en perdition (M) que d’arbres productifs (R) pour produire 1000 pmp (2,36 m3) de sciages. Le revenu total moyen par m3 net de tige varie de 90,99 $/m3 pour les arbres en perdition (M) à 163,08 $/m3 pour les arbres en réserve (R) (sciages non triés). Pour les sciages triés selon la couleur, le revenu moyen passe de 95,50 $/m3 à 194,90 $/m3 pour les classes M et R respectivement. Si l’approvisionnement d’une scierie se fait uniquement à partir de bouleaux blancs en perdition (M), ceci diminuera considérablement ses revenus. De plus, on peut facilement prévoir un problème de surplus de copeaux puisque pour obtenir un volume suffisant de billes de sciages pour opérer une scierie, il faudra récolter encore plus d’arbres en perdition. Cette problématique, intimement associée à la transformation de billes de qualité inférieure, serait aggravée à moins de trouver de nouvelles utilisations pour cette ressource en perdition impropre au sciage. À long terme et s’il est appliqué avec rigueur dans les peuplements qui le permettent, le système de classification MSCR devrait contribuer à améliorer la qualité globale des forêts feuillues québécoises en conservant des arbres vigoureux de bonne qualité pour le futur.
Betula papyrifera - Yield
Stand value
Silviculture
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Optimized laminating of seven B.C. species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37570
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Andersen, Axel W.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Andersen, Axel W.
Contributor
Forest Renewal BC.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Second growth
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga
Populus tremuloides
Populus
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Larix
Laminate product
Growth
British Columbia
Betula
Aspen
Series Number
W-1753
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Seven B.C. species, namely, interior Douglas fir, coastal second growth Douglas fir, western larch, lodgepole pine, western white spruce, trembling aspen and white birch were evaluated for their laminating properties using different adhesive formulations and pressing conditions. Using optimized gluing and pressing conditions, six of the B.C. species showed excellent bond quality when laminating with radio-frequency (RF) heating and either cross-linked polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) or phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) adhesive. These laminates easily passed the shear block wood failure requirement in the ASTM-D-2559 standard and the delamination requirement in the ASTM-D-1101 standard. Because white birch which has a high density showed the highest block shear strengths for the optimum PRF adhesive formulation, this species showed the lowest average percent wood failure of the seven B.C. species and did not meet the ASTM-D-2559 wood failure requirement of 75%. Using conventional platen pressing at 20 or 25°C, laminates were prepared with different PRF adhesive formulations and the seven B.C. species. Using an optimized PRF adhesive formulation, the laminates for the seven BC species met the above ASTM standard requirements for wood failure and delamination. Overall, the percent wood failure was higher for the laminates made at 25°C indicating more resin cure. Hence, for laminates made with the optimum PRF formulation, PRF-C, the average percent wood failure for western larch at 20°C was 78% compared to 98% at 25°C.
Laminated products - Manufacture - British Columbia
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Larix occidentalis
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Picea glauca
Populus tremuloides
Betula papyrifera
Second growth
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Protection of yellow birch veneer logs during storage and processing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41536
Author
Pfaff, Frank
Date
March 1989
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
4.1 MATERIAL Fifteen yellow birch (Betula alleghanlensis Brit.) veneer logs were obtained from
Author
Pfaff, Frank
Date
March 1989
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Veneer
Logs
Betula
Series Number
CFS project no.28
Project no.3812M208
E-1040
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Veneer Logs - Protection
Yellow Birch - Protection
Betula Alleghaniensis - Protection
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Towards an increased and optimized utilization of white birch across Canada : literature review and recommendations for future research

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42287
Author
Duchesne, I.
Rancourt, V.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
of 48 4 Silvics The currently accepted scientific name for white birch is Betula papyrifera Marsh
Author
Duchesne, I.
Rancourt, V.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
48 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
White birch
Utilization
Betula
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 28
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This literature review provides an overview of current knowledge of white birch characteristics, volumes, marketing efforts and end-uses in Canada. The literature indicates there is major concern within Canada with regard to hardwood supply. Demand for hardwood furniture has steadily increased in the past decade, which has put considerable pressure on hardwood forests. As a result, the quality and volumes of conventional hardwoods (sugar maple, yellow birch) are on the decline. Because the market for hardwood lumber and value-added products is expanding, the scarcity of traditional hardwoods must be partly compensated with alternative species. Of all the species available, white birch is clearly the most appealing hardwood because of its availability throughout Canada. The total volume of white birch available in Canada is estimated to be 1,106 billion cubic meters, which confirms the availability of the resource. White birch trees are usually smaller and curvier than sugar maple and yellow birch. However, the moderate use of white birch seems to be more related to our culture or traditions (preference for conventional hardwoods) than to the idea that white birch properties are unacceptable. On the contrary, according to the literature, white birch wood is greatly appreciated for its light colour and good woodworking properties. Thus, the potential for better commercial utilization of white birch exists and is far from being fully explored. In recent years, interest in processing white birch has increased substantially but there are still gaps in our knowledge of potential uses of the species. To meet future wood supply demand in a sustainable manner, more intensive forest management, transformation processes and marketing strategies geared to the white birch resource should be developed by province, region and industrial sector. This would ensure the right resource is available locally at the right place for the right product. On the basis of current knowledge, the following areas of research are proposed: 1) Develop silvicultural methods to improve white birch growth and quality. 2) Develop harvesting and logistics operations to ensure efficient white birch harvesting, particularly where it grows in association with other species. 3) Review and develop transformation processes that are more closely geared to the white birch resource 4) Develop a campaign to enhance awareness of white birch characteristics and potential, and promote the true value of the species. 5) Develop marketing strategies and increase the use of white birch in different value-added products 6) And finally, build a database on Canadian white birch, compiling information gathered from the forest to the final product for use in simulations in future research projects.
Betula - Utilization
White Birch
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Utilization of commercially available resource for particleboard and MDF. Part V. Evaluation of white birch, sugar maple, and red oak as raw materials for particleboard manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39007
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Date
December 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
December 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
35 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Particle boards
Betula
Maple
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
E-4194
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To investigate hardwood species as a substitute for spruce/pine/fir (SPF) softwoods in particleboard manufacturing, a series of three-layer particleboards were prepared from various hardwood species including white birch (WB), sugar maple (SM), and red oak (RO) as well as their mixtures (WB/SM, WB/RO, and SM/RO at mixing ratios of 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25, respectively, and WB/SM/RO at mixing ratios of 25/25/50, 25/50/25, and 50/25/25, respectively). For each single and mixed species, two substitution levels of hardwood species for SPF were evaluated: overall 22% (10% in face and 30% in core) and 40% (10% in face and 60% in core). After conditioning at 65% RH/20oC, all boards were evaluated for mechanical and physical properties including internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA), and linear expansion (LE). All panels made from single and mixed hardwood species at 22% and 40% SPF substitution levels, with one exception, met ANSI A208.1 standard requirements for Grade M2 particleboard in terms of IB, MOR, MOE, and LE. The panel made with sugar maple at the 40% substitution level failed to meet the MOR requirement. This failure was attributed to the lower board density or compression ratio. For the panels made from hardwood species at the 40% SPF substitution level, the average values for IB, MOR, and MOE exceeded the standard requirements by 177%, 21%, and 23%, respectively, while the average LE value was lower than the standard requirement by 30%. These results imply that more hardwoods could be used as substitutes for SPF softwoods in particleboard manufacturing, especially in the core layer. With respect to overall panel performance, the following hardwood species appeared to produce panels that were comparable to the SPF control: (1) 100% red oak at both substitution levels (22% and 40%); (2) 25/75 WB/SM at the 40% substitution level; (3) 25/75 WB/RO at both substitution levels; and (4) 25/75 and 50/50 SM/RO at the 40% substitution level. This study shows that wood species and density, original form of raw material, and moisture content (before grinding) influence the particle size distribution, and, consequently, influence the resin efficiency in terms of resin coverage over particle surfaces. This implies that the disadvantage of using hardwoods, in terms of their higher density and lower compression ratio (board density over wood density), as a substitute for SPF softwoods for manufacturing high-quality particleboard could be overcome by improving resin efficiency via optimizing particle size distribution during grinding and screening processes.
Fibreboard - Manufacture
Particleboard - Manufactue
Betula papyrifera Marsh. - Utilization
Acer saccharum
Quercus rubra - Utilization
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Utilization of commercially available resource for particleboard and MDF. Part VI. Evaluation of SPF/yellow birch mixture as raw materials for HDF manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39019
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Pinus
Picea
Particle boards
Betula
Fir
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
E-4213
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In order to investigate the mix of softwood (SPF) and hardwood (yellow birch) furnishes as raw materials for manufacturing high-density fibreboard (HDF), a series of panels were manufactured from single softwood and hardwood species and softwood/hardwood mixes. The wood raw materials included sawdust and chips for both species. The panels were evaluated for internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), 24-h thickness swelling (TS), 24-h edge TS, 24-h water absorption (WA), and linear expansion (LE). First of all, the test results show that the sawdust fibres produced overall stronger panels than the mixed sawdust/chip fibres, regardless of wood species. Of the sawdust fibres, the softwood fibres resulted in panels with overall better static bending and water resistant properties compared with both hardwood alone and softwood/hardwood mixes (50/50). However, the hardwood fibres and softwood/hardwood mixed fibres produced higher IB panels than did the softwood fibres. For the mixed softwood/hardwood furnishes, fibres refined at 8.5- and 10-bar steam pressure produced high-quality panels compared to fibres refined at 12-bar steam pressure. For the mixes of 50/50 chip/sawdust fibres, the panel made from softwood sawdust/hardwood chips performed slightly better than the panel made from softwood chips/hardwood sawdust with respect to MOE, TS, edge TS and WA. However, the opposite result was observed in terms of MOR and LE properties. These two panels were stronger than that made from hardwood chip/hardwood sawdust fibre with respect to static bending and water resistant properties. All three mixed chip/sawdust fibres yielded similar IB panels. Pre-treating some of the furnish in the softwood/hardwood or hardwood/hardwood mix (50/50) with steam for 30 minutes at 120oC improved the performance for the panel made from the mixed hardwood chip (pre-treated)/hardwood sawdust fibre in terms of all panel properties; however, this pre-treatment had a negative impact on the overall performance for other mixed furnishes, i.e., softwood sawdust/ hardwood sawdust (pre-treated), softwood chip (pre-treated)/hardwood sawdust, and softwood sawdust/ hardwood chip (pre-treated). It was speculated that the pre-treatment conditions for the raw materials with higher moisture content (65-99%) might have been too severe, which could have negatively affected resulting wood strength properties via hydrolysis. Further study will be needed to understand why the pre-treatment had a negative impact on the performance of HDF panel made from the softwood/hardwood mixes and not the panel made from the hardwood mix.
Fibreboard - Manufacture
Particleboard - Manufactue
Picea - Utilization
Pinus - Utilization
Abies - Utilization
Betula - Utilization
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11 records – page 1 of 2.