In 2015, the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC)  adopted prescriptive provisions to allow the construction of mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) buildings using combustible construction. These types of buildings were already permitted under the British Columbia Building Code, as of 2009 . In2014 the Province of Ontario filed an amendment to also allow mid-rise wood buildings, however, it required that the exit fire separations be built using noncombustible construction having a fire resistance rating (FRR) of not less than 1.5-hr, which was an increase from the 1-hr requirement in the NBCC. The Québec Construction Code has also filed amendments to allow mid-rise wood construction and also limits exit stairwells to use noncombustible construction.
FPInnovations conducted a research project to study the construction of mid-rise wood exit shafts in Ontario and Québec. The scope of the project included an investigation into the concerns that have been raised in regards to the use of wood exits in mid-rise buildings, an analysis of recent Canadian fire statistics in residential multi-family structures, and a fire demonstration of a mass timber wall and supported light-frame floor. This report describes the fire demonstration completed as part of this project; this report acts as a supplement to the full project report.
FPInnovations carried out a survey with consultants and researchers on the use of analytical models and software packages related to the analysis and design of mass timber buildings. The responses confirmed that a lack of suitable models and related information for material properties of timber connections, in particular under combination of various types of loads and fire, was creating an impediment to the design and construction of this type of buildings. Furthermore, there is currently a lack of computer models for use in performance-based design for wood buildings, in particular, seismic and fire performance-based design.
In this study, a sophisticated constitutive model for wood-based composite material under stress and temperature was developed. This constitutive model was programmed into a user-subroutine and can be added to most general-purpose finite element software. The developed model was used to model the structural performance of a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beam and a glulam bolted connection under force and/or fire. Compared with the test results, it shows that the developed model was capable of simulating the mechanical behaviour of LVL beam and glulam connection under load and/or fire with fairly good correlation.
With this model, it will allow structural designers to obtain the load-displacement curve of timber connections under force, fire or combination of the two. With this, key design parameters such as capacity, stiffness, displacement and ductility, which are required for seismic or fire design, can be obtained.
It is recommended that further verification and calibration of the model be conducted on various types of wood products, such as CLT, glulam, SCL and NLT, and fasteners, e.g. screw and rivet. Moreover, a database of the thermal and structural properties of the wood members and fasteners that are commonly used in timber constructions need to be developed to support and facilitate the application of the model.
These tests were performed to support the approval and construction of a tall wood building in Quebec City (13-storey). While a calculation methodology is provided in Chapter 8 (Fire) of the CLT Handbook , the Association des Chefs en Sécurité Incendie du Québec (ACSIQ), the Régie du bâtiment du Québec (RBQ) and other stakeholders requested these tests be performed so that they could witness the actual fire performance of the specified assemblies. As such, the main objective was to demonstrate at least a 2 h FRR of the CLT assemblies, which is the minimum required rating as prescribed by the National Building Code of Canada  for structural elements and fire separation walls of exit stair ways and elevators shafts in tall buildings (greater than 6 storeys).
Numerous representatives from Quebec and Ontario were present for either one or both days of testing, including RBQ, the Cities of Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec City as well as fire services personnel from Montreal, Ottawa and Gatineau. FPInnovations, Nordic, the Canadian Wood Council (CWC), and CHM fire consultants were also in attendance.
Fire tests on a double egress fire door installed in two Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) wall panels were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to identify design consideration for detailing the interface between a 90 min. listed door assembly and a CLT wall with a 2-hr fire resistance. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-6a Rev.2, and T895-6b Rev. 1
Fire tests on two unprotected 5-ply Cross Laminated Tmber (CLT) floors with pipe penetrations were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate concepts for detailing metallic and plastic pipe penetration firestops. Although the focus was on flame through performance, some temperature data was collected on insulated and uninsulated metallic pipes. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-5a, and T895-5b Rev.3
The fire resistance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) could be improved by treating the lamina with fire retardants. The major issues with this technology are the reduced bondability of the treated lamina with commercial adhesives. This study assessed several surface preparation methods that could improve the bondability and bond durability of fire-retardant treated wood with two commercial adhesives. Four surface preparation methods, including moisture/heat/pressure, surface planing, surface chemical treatment, and surface plasma treatment were assessed for their impact on the bondability and bond durability of lodgepole pine lamina. The block shear test results indicated that all surface preparation methods were somewhat effective in improving bond performance of fire-retardant treated wood compared to the untreated control wood samples, depending on the types of fire retardants and wood adhesives applied in the treatment process and bonding process. The selection of surface preparation, fire retardant, and wood adhesive should be considered interactively to obtain the best bond properties and fire performance. It may be possible to effectively bond the treated lamina with PUR adhesive without any additional surface preparation for the fire retardant used in the treatment at FPInnovations.