Les forêts de feuillus tolérants fournissent une vaste gamme de produits, notamment des billes dont la valeur varie de 45 à 1700 $/m3. L'utilisaton de modèles de production convenant aux produits de commodité ne maximise pas la valeur qu'on peut tirer de ce type de forêt.
Harvesting with 33-m trail spacing was proposed by FERIC as a way to meet the quality criteria for single-tree selection in hardwood forests in Quebec's public forests. The approach is, however, applicable to any partial-cutting treatment in hardwood forests, and the method was studied in 16 operations in 2003-2004. The approach represents an acceptable compromise between protection of the residual stand and operating costs, as the productivity of the feller-bunchers using this method decreased only slightly as a result of increased travel. The operations that FERIC studied did not all meet the target quality criteria, but provided an adequate level of protection of residual stems. The method requires a certain degree of control to limit the felling of non-marked stems, and the use of evaluation criteria specially adapted to this method would facilitate its implementation.
Le tronçonnage demeure pour la majorité des scieurs de bois feuillus un domaine problématique possédant un potentiel d’amélioration significatif, tant au niveau du volume sciable que du rendement valeur de la ressource disponible. La récupération de la valeur optimale d’une tige est directement liée à l’efficacité du préposé au tronçonnage. De mauvaises décisions de sa part résultent en une perte de valeur. Les principales raisons entraînant de mauvaises décisions sont la complexité et l’imprécision des lignes directrices, le grand nombre de classe de qualité, les exigences de productivité, le manque de formation et d’outils d’aide à la prise de décision. De plus, le nombre possible de combinaisons de longueur de billes et de découpes pour une même tige est assez important. L’évaluation d’une partie seulement des solutions potentielles requiert déjà un effort mental important.
Un système de tronçonnage complètement optimisé demeurera probablement une solution inaccessible pour la majorité des industriels à moyen terme. Cependant, la technologie des lecteurs et des caméras progressant très rapidement, il existe une possibilité de développer un système hybride qui pourrait générer des bénéfices importants. La ressource disponible est bien souvent de piètre qualité et il est envisageable de maximiser le volume de fibre sciable en optimisant le tronçonnage selon la courbure et la géométrie des tiges. Ce projet vise à chiffrer les bénéfices potentiels de cette approche de tronçonnage et d’en valider la faisabilité économique.
FERIC studied manual and mechanized felling operations with extraction by cable skidder within the Turkey Lakes Watershed in central Ontario. The study compared manual and mechanized clearcutting and partial-cutting operations (shelterwood and selection cuts) and found that felling and extraction productivities were greatest in clearcutting. However, site disturbance depended as much on how the operation was conducted as on the harvesting system used. From the perspective of riparian-zone management, each cut intensity and harvest system offers different advantages with respect to slash distribution and mineral-soil exposure, and their respective merits must be considered in light of the silvicultural objectives.
Fire tests on a double egress fire door installed in two Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) wall panels were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to identify design consideration for detailing the interface between a 90 min. listed door assembly and a CLT wall with a 2-hr fire resistance. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-6a Rev.2, and T895-6b Rev. 1
Fire tests on two unprotected 5-ply Cross Laminated Tmber (CLT) floors with pipe penetrations were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to evaluate concepts for detailing metallic and plastic pipe penetration firestops. Although the focus was on flame through performance, some temperature data was collected on insulated and uninsulated metallic pipes. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-5a, and T895-5b Rev.3
This report summarizes work that was performed at the request of Quebec’s Ministère des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune (MRNFQ) as part of updating their economic models for hardwood forest. The study compared the productivity of mechanized felling in a selection cut with the productivity of the same equipment and operators working in a regeneration cut. This comparison generated regression equations for the productivity of mechanized felling as a function of mean stem volume for each type of cut in hardwood and mixed forests.
FERIC studied three log-producing harvesting systems to determine their productivities and costs in stands of intolerant hardwoods. The systems differed based on where the processing took place: during felling, at the stump, or at roadside. The system using a roadside processor proved most economical, but the two other systems we observed are also suitable for the highly variable harvesting conditions encountered in hardwood stands. An operation with at-the-stump processing was also studied in stands of tolerant hardwoods, and the results suggest that this operation was less productive and more expensive than the operations in intolerant hardwoods. The low productivity was, however, compensated for by the higher value of the sawlogs and veneer logs that were produced.
This study presents a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) of hardwood lumber produced in eastern Canada. LCA is a comprehensive analytical examination of the flows to and from nature related to a product or a process. LCA is typically performed following international protocols and is considered by many to be the best mechanism for quantifying the true environmental footprint of a product. An LCA can address some or all of the stages in the life of a product. This LCA addresses environmental impacts up to the mill “gate” for hardwood lumber; such a cradle-to-gate assessment is typical for products that are usually destined to be components in any number of secondary products. For those secondary products, a full cradle-to-grave LCA could be developed (incorporating effects from transportation, installation, usage and disposal), using the cradle-to-gate LCA as part of the input data. 201002820 - 1.1
Four-foot hard maple bolts, ranging in diameter from 6 to 16 inches, were produced from pulp wood and sawlogs. The bolts were live-sawn into 1-inch boards to identify the coordinates of each board defect in order to mathematically reconstruct each bolt for simulated sawing. The optimum bolt values were obtained by "computer sawing" the bolt models several times into dimension stock, squares or pallet stock using three sawing patterns; live, around and cant sawing. In the simulated sawing of the actual and theoretical bolts, live sawing consistently resulted in the highest product value. The only exception was for bolts containing a large amount of discoloured wood. In these cases, around and cant sawing performed better than live sawing. In general, liver sawing produced the highest product value for the following reasons; the production of wider boards allows a greater resawing flexibility, fewer saw cuts with less kerf loss and the production of fewer slabs. In-plant studies were conducted to determine the effect of the sawing pattern on productivity. Live sawing increased productivity by 18% for small diameter bolts and up to 30% for larger diameter bolts over the other sawing patterns. While multi-pass systerms may be suitable for the larger, higher quality bolts, it is doubtful that such a system would be viable processing small diameter material down to 6 inches. In processing smaller diameter bolts, it is necessary to have a single-pass system with high productivity to offset the lower quality and value of this material.