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57 records – page 1 of 6.

Alternatives to thick walls for home insulation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1742
Author
Bellosillo, S.B.
Aplin, E.N.
Date
January 1981
Edition
38259
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
3 iii INTRODUCTION Reducing the amount of energy used to heat the Canadian home is a major aim
Author
Bellosillo, S.B.
Aplin, E.N.
Date
January 1981
Edition
38259
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thermal properties
Thermal analysis
Residential construction
Canada
Heat
Series Number
CFS project 7/1980-81
E-867
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Construction, Residential - Insulating Methods
Insulation (Heat) - Thermal Properties
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Assessment of heat-treated jack pine and balsam fir

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5324
Author
Lihra, T.
Date
May 2003
Edition
42198
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Assessment of Heat-Treated Jack Pine and Balsam Fir i Notice Neither Forintek, nor
Author
Lihra, T.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
May 2003
Edition
42198
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Treatment
Mechanical properties
Heat
Series Number
CFS Value-Added Report 3675
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Industrial heat treatment technology for wood has been under development since the 1970s. The technology consists in heating wood to temperatures of from 150°C to 240°C while preventing it from burning. This is achieved by heating the wood in either an inert atmosphere or saturated vapour environment. Heating the wood over 200°C changes the chemical structure of the wood and results in a reduction in its hydrophilic behaviour. After heat treatment when wood colour has changed to brown, an improvement in dimensional stability and biological durability should be observed. However, some mechanical properties of the wood may have decreased. This enhanced dimensional stability and biological durability make heat treatment an interesting option for the protection of wood used in exterior applications. The objectives of this study are to assess the performance of heat treatment technologies and to determine the properties of jack pine and balsam fir after heat treatment, as regards to exterior applications. Owing to difficulties in the start-up period that significantly delayed the project, no experimental work had been conducted by the end of March 2003. The lumber has however been sent to two companies for treatment and the physical and mechanical tests will be conducted under a new project entitled “Quality Control and Certification of Thermally Modified Wood.” A final report will be issued at the end of March 2004.
Heat treatment, Effect on mechanical properties
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Chain chokers for small scale operations

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub377
Author
Ewing, Roderick H.
Date
January 1996
Edition
36611
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Ewing, Roderick H.
Date
January 1996
Edition
36611
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Winches
Wear
Treatment
Tensile strength
Tensile
Mechanical properties
Steel
Small scale
Skidding
Shock
Quenching
Operations
Loads
Heat
Alloy
Series Number
Technical Note ; TN-000237
Language
English
Abstract
With the appropriate mainline attachment, chain chokers are a viable alternative to conventional wire rope chokers, particularly for small-scale operations. This report provides users of tractor-mounted winches and cable skidders with technical information on chain chokers. The report covers type of steels, chain specifications and grades, and how to inspect chains for wear elongation. The various components (e.g. sliding hooks, rings) used to assemble chain chokers are also discussed.
CHAIN CHOKERS
Steel
ALLOYS
WORKING LOAD
BREAKING STRENGTH
TENSILE STRENGTH
Wear
STATIC LOAD
SHOCK LOAD
Heat treatment
QUENCHING
TEMPERING
Winching
Skidding
Small-scale operations
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Contrôle de la qualité et certification du bois modifié thermiquement

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38951
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
50 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Treatment
Heat
Series Number
Valeur au bois no FCC 12
4019
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
En Europe, la modification thermique du bois à l’échelle industrielle est en cours depuis le début des années 1990. Le chauffage du bois dans une gamme de températures variant de 160 à 245oC provoque la modification des composés chimiques résultant en un changement des propriétés physico mécaniques du matériau. Les propriétés du bois modifié thermiquement s’avèrent intéressantes pour la commercialisation de nouveaux produits à usages extérieur et intérieur. Dans l’Est du Canada, la production industrielle de bois modifié thermiquement s’effectue encore à petite échelle. Toutefois, l’intérêt pour ce nouveau matériau est en constante évolution. Dans le cadre de ce projet, des travaux ont été réalisés sur le bois modifié thermiquement de façon à répondre aux objectifs propres à l’évaluation de différentes technologies de modification thermique, à la détermination des propriétés de certaines essences du Canada, au développement d’une méthode de contrôle de la qualité et à l’établissement des fondations d’un programme de certification. Les travaux ont été réalisés en quatre phases. Dans un premier temps, les propriétés physiques et mécaniques des bois de pin gris et de sapin baumier modifiés thermiquement à l’aide de trois procédés industriels ont été évaluées. Les technologies considérées étaient le procédé finlandais ThermoWood, le procédé français de Rétification et le procédé québécois d’origine française Perdure. De façon générale, le bois modifié thermiquement se traduit par une amélioration de la résistance à la dégradation fongique et par un accroissement significatif de la stabilité dimensionnelle du matériau en plus de la coloration foncée obtenue suite au traitement. Toutefois, les résistances à l’impact, à l’abrasion et le MOR sont diminués. Un chargement de sapin douglas en provenance de l’Ouest canadien fut modifié thermiquement par le procédé Perdure. Le matériel fut retourné au laboratoire de l’Ouest de Forintek pour analyse suite au traitement. En laboratoire, le sapin douglas modifié thermiquement et non modifié ont démontré des pertes de masse similaires lorsque exposés aux champignons G. trabeum et P. placenta résultant en des classements hautement et moyennement résistants à la dégradation fongique respectivement. Finalement, les résultats des essais de durabilité aux intempéries du bois de sapin douglas en conditions extérieures seront disponibles ultérieurement. Deux méthodes non destructives de contrôle de la qualité ont été étudiées dans le cadre des travaux de maîtrise d’une étudiante graduée. La colorimétrie et les ultrasons se distinguent des autres méthodes par leur caractère non destructif et leur simplicité. Les résultats obtenus sont prometteurs en termes de détermination de la température de traitement par la mesure de la couleur du bois modifié et la détection de gerces internes par la méthode acousto-ultrasonore développée. La dernière phase du projet a porté sur l’étude des classes de traitement du bois établies par différents organismes dont la Finnish ThermoWood Association en Finlande. Des travaux ont été réalisés sur la caractérisation du bois de pin gris modifié thermiquement par le procédé finlandais ThermoWood à différents niveaux de température incluant les classes de traitement Thermo-S et Thermo-D. Ces travaux constituent la première étape propre à la définition des classes de traitement en fonction des propriétés du matériau telles que la couleur, la résistance à la dégradation fongique et la stabilité dimensionnelle. Finalement, les éléments importants à considérer en vue de l’établissement d’un programme de certification ont été soulevés.
Heat treatment
Wood, thermally modified
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Determination of available heat of combustion data for Canadian Woody series

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38794
Author
Kryla, J.M.
Date
January 1980
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Author
Kryla, J.M.
Date
January 1980
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
89 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Biomass Conversion
Subject
Power supply
Energy
Heat
Combusions
Calorific power
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
A literature review was conducted to obtain reliable, experimentally determined calorific data for the various components of Canadian tree species. Information was obtained for 48 tree species native to Canada and is presented in tabular form. For indigenous species, the overall mean calorific value was found to be 21.18 Mj/kg for softwood materials (i.e. stem wood, stem bark, foliage, etc.) compared to 19.35 Mj/kg for hardwoods. Variation between reported values for a component of a particular species was found to be generally less than 5% but, in some instances, exceeded 10%. Calorific data are also presented for hybrid poplar and for several foreign species commonly planted in Canada. It is recommended that experimental research be conducted to form a complete calorific value checklist which could be used to supplement Canadian biomass inventory data.
PDF
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Development of heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42239
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
as such members remain in good standing. Development of Heat-transfer Models for Wood-frame Assemblies
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No 9
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Computer fire modelling is an important high-tech tool in fire safety engineering and fire science. The movement towards objective-based building codes means that these models will find application in performance-based fire-safety design of wood structures. Accordingly for more than a decade, fire researchers at Forintek strove to develop heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies exposed to fire. Then, in 2001 Forintek elected to outsource all future development of these models. This project provides funding, direction and oversight for the outside development of these design tools. Canadian officials identified construction of wood-frame buildings in Japan as an important market priority. To aid them in their endeavours, in 2002-2003 Forintek contracted the development of a heat transfer model for exterior walls constructed with exterior expanded polystyrene-foam (EPS) insulation and ceramic-siding rains screens when subjected to standard fire exposures on the outside face. In 2003-2004 Forintek contracted to have further refinements made to that heat transfer model so that users would have the option of selecting either exterior EPS insulation or exterior semi-rigid glass-fibre insulation panels. That work was completed and comparisons between the model’s predictions and the results of full-scale tests show good agreement. A paper describing Forintek’s heat transfer model for exterior walls with exterior insulation and non-combustible rain-screens, and comparisons between the model’s predicted outcomes and the results of full-scale fire tests on such assemblies will be presented later this year at the 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering. In recent years Japanese building regulations were revised to permit construction of wood-frame (combustible) buildings within the high-density urban centres (Fire Protection Zones) of their larger cities if the major loadbearing elements in those buildings met specific requirements for fireproof construction. Those requirements have been dubbed the “one-plus-three” test requirements because for “low-rise” wood-frame apartment buildings and large houses they include exhibiting one-hour of fire-resistance when tested in accordance with ISO 834, and continued fire resistance without structural collapse when the test assembly is maintained under structural load with the fire-test furnace in-place against the side of the assembly for an additional three hours. Again, to assist in promoting markets for Canadian wood products in Japan, in 2003-2004 Forintek commenced modifying its WALL2D heat transfer model so that it would be capable of predicting the thermal response of walls subjected to the fire (thermal) exposures specified in Japan’s one-plus-three test method, parametric, and “real” fire scenarios. In preparation for that work, a Forintek scientist traveled to Japan to gather more information about the “one-plus-three” testing procedures. Later, Forintek contracted the service of Dr H. Takeda to travel to Japan to obtain thermo-physical property data for the gypsum board products commonly used in construction of wood buildings complying with Japanese specifications for fireproof construction. The information obtained from these two trips indicated that the successful completion of revisions to the WALL2D model would be much more difficult and require much more time than had originally been anticipated. With the support of Forintek, one of the students enrolled at Carleton University, Steven Craft, chose as the topic for his PhD thesis the reliability of wood-frame floors in fire. One of the tasks that he is carrying out for his thesis is the development of a heat transfer model for floor assemblies constructed with solid-wood joists. Dr Hadjisophocleous, the Chair in Fire Safety Engineering at the university, and Craft’s thesis advisor, submitted a proposal to Materials Manufacturing Ontario (MMO) which would leverage Forintek’s financial support to Craft and enable Hadjisophocleous to build an entire research program around Craft’s thesis research. MMO accepted the proposal. One of the biggest problems encountered in performance-base fire-safety design of large commercial structures is selecting the proper design or “realistic” fire scenario to be used when modeling fire resistance. For large commercial building with atria, establishing the required fire exposures on the boundaries of the atria from a fire within those tall, large open spaces is a particularly difficult issue. Therefore, in 2003, fire researchers in Australia submitted a proposal to the Australian Research Council (ARC) to study this subject. Forintek will provide some support for the work. All of these activities will continue in 2004-2005.
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
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Development of heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies : 2002-2003 progress

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42193
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
as such members remain in good standing. Development of Heat-transfer Models for Wood-frame Assemblies
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
CFS No 9
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Computer fire modelling is one of the most important high-tech tools in fire safety engineering and fire science. The movement towards objective-based building codes means that these models will be essential tools for performance-based fire-safety design of wood structures. Accordingly for more than a decade, fire researchers at Forintek have been striving to develop heat-transfer models (HT models) for wood-frame assemblies exposed to fire. Then, in 2001 Forintek elected to outsource all future development of these models. This project provides funding, direction and oversight for the outside development of these design tools. Because both the Canadian government and the wood industry had identified construction of wood-frame buildings in Japan as a market priority, and the fire performance of exterior wood-frame walls with exterior foam-plastic insulation and ceramic-siding rain screens, a popular Japanese housing design, as one of their biggest hurdles in capturing a larger share of that market, in 2002-2003, efforts were focused on development of a model to predict heat transfer through that specific type of assembly. Using WALL2D, Forintek’s HT model for wood-frame walls with gypsum board on both sides as the foundation, Nortak Software Ltd. was contracted to complete Forintek’s development of a model to predict heat transfer through wood-frame exterior walls subjected on the exterior face to ISO 834 fire exposures. While Forintek researchers knew that the Japan Testing Center for Construction Materials (JTCCM) in Tokyo had carried out fire tests on exterior wood-frame walls with expanded-polystyrene (EPS) exterior insulation and ceramic-siding rain screens, little was known about the outcome of those tests, the pass/fail criteria used in assessing such assemblies, and the problems, if any, that were encountered in carrying out the tests. Also, in ISO 834 tests, the fire gases within test furnaces are under a small positive pressure. The ability, if any, of those furnace pressures to drive hot fire gases through the ventilation/drainage holes in the rain screen and directly into the cavities behind the ceramic siding, and the direction of that gas flow within the cavities were completely unknown. Of greater significance and equal uncertainty was the effect that those conditions might have on the EPS insulation backing upon the cavities. Also, there was a dearth of information in Canada about design and construction practices followed in Japan for these types of walls. Another concern for Forintek was our ability to obtain test data for validation of the HT model once it had been developed. Finally, overriding all other concerns was the willingness of Japanese testing organizations, regulatory officials, manufacturers of building materials, and builders to accept the use of models to predict the fire performance of these types of assemblies. Therefore, Forintek contracted the service of Dr. Hisahiro Takeda to travel to the JTCCM to gather intelligence answering each of these concerns. Development of Foritnek’s HT model for exterior walls with exterior EPS insulation and ceramic-siding rains screens will be completed by September 2003. Forintek will then aid Canadian government and industry officials in exporting Canadian housing technology and Canadian building products to Japan by working with officials at NRCan CANMET in selecting optimum designs for exterior wall assemblies to be used in construction of energy efficient houses in Japan. At the same time, Forintek will work with other industry and governmental officials to promote and market Canadian housing technology and Canadian building products in China, Taiwan and Korea by using the model to demonstrate the fire resistance of exterior wood-frame walls. Finally, Forintek will attempt to work with researchers at the JTCCM to market the model in Japan.
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
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Development of heat transfer models for wood-frame assemblies : 2004-2005 progress

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42307
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Report 2004/05 9 Development of Heat Transfer Models for Wood-frame Assemblies 2004-2005 Progress
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 9
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
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Development of heat transfer models for wood-frame assemblies : progress in 2005-2006

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38932
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Development of Heat Transfer Models for Wood-Frame Assemblies - Progress in 2005-2006
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 9
3636
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Computer fire modelling is an important high-tech tool in fire safety engineering and fire science. The transition to objective-based building codes means that these models will find application in performance-based fire-safety design of wood structures. Accordingly for more than a decade, fire researchers at Forintek strove to develop heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies exposed to fire. Dubbed WALL2D, the model developed by Forintek’s researchers predicts heat transfer through simple non-bearing wood-stud walls filled with thermal/acoustical insulation in the stud cavities and gypsum board on the two faces. Then, in 2001 Forintek elected to outsource all future development of these models. This project provides funding, direction and oversight for the outside development of these design tools. A paper by H. Takeda and L.R. Richardson entitled A Heat Transfer Model to Simulate Japan's 1+3 Fire Endurance Test for Wood-Framed Wall Assemblies was presented at the IAWPS 2005 Conference organized by the Japan Wood Research Society (JWRS) and the International Association of Wood Products Societies (IAWPS). A paper by H. Takeda and L.R. Richardson entitled A Model to Simulate Japan’s ‘1 + 3’ Fire Endurance Test was submitted for presentation at the 31st International Symposium on Combustion (2006) in Heidelberg, Germany on August 6-11, 2006. A Japanese-language paper by H. Takeda roughly translated as Wood-Frame Wall Fire Resistance Simulation Model was published in Wood Industry 60(3)134-137. The Journal is published by the Wood Technological Association of Japan. Through the efforts of researchers and students at Carleton University, and with funding assistance from the Ontario Centres of Excellence, development of computer models to predict the response of wood-frame floor assemblies to fire attack, including both the thermal and the structural response of such assemblies, and models to predict the probability of failure of wood-frame building elements during fire continued. As part of his PhD studies, S. Craft undertook a directed studies project which investigated the behaviour of gypsum board and wood at elevated temperatures. His goal was the development of sub-models which better address the kinetics of calcination of gypsum board and the pyrolysis of wood. To more effectively model heat transfer though wood and gypsum board, Forintek established a collaborative contract with the material testing division of the National Research Council Canada (NRC) to provide additional thermal analysis test data (differential thermal analysis {DTA}; thermal-gravimetric and analysis {TGA}; and differential scanning calorimetry {DSC}) for gypsum board and spruce wood. Based upon his analysis of the data, Craft submitted a Directed Studies Report to Carleton University entitled Modelling the Thermal Degradation of Gypsum Board and Wood Using TGA. A poster presentation by J.R. Mehaffey, S. Craft, G. Hadjisophocleous and B. Isgor entitled Fire Response of Gypsum Board and Wood Framing was given at the 8th International Symposium sponsored by the International Association of Fire Safety Science. Finally, a paper by S. Craft, G. Hadjisophocleous, B. Isgor and J. Mehaffey entitled Predicting the Fire Resistance of Light-Frame Wood Floor Assemblies was submitted and has been accepted for presentation at the 4th International Workshop on Structures in Fire (SiF’06) on May 10-12, 2006 at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. In August 2005, Forintek established an agreement with SwRI whereby researchers at SwRI would assess the feasibility of utilizing commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) programs to model wood members (e.g. heavy-timber beams and columns) exposed to fire conditions. The fire resistance of a glulam beam was modeled in two-dimensions using five different FEA programs commonly used to predict the response of structures exposed to elevated temperature. The output of each model was compared with experimental data for wood beams from tests conducted in 1997 at SwRI. Following the completion of this research, a paper by B. Badders (SwRI) and J.R. Mehaffey and L.R. Richardson (Forintek) entitled Using Commercial FEA Software Packages to Model the Fire Performance of Exposed GLULAM Beams was submitted and has been accepted for presentation at the 4th International Workshop on Structures in Fire (SiF’06) on May 10-12, 2006 at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. While this project officially ended on March 31, 2006, many of the activities underway at that time will continue as components of other Forintek research projects or through the activities of the Carleton University Industrial Research Chair in Fire Safety Engineering.
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
Documents
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Effectiveness of reflective tarpaulins in protecting tree seedlings against heat stress

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub40813
Author
Stjernberg, Ernst
Date
June 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
SEEDLINGS AGAINST HEAT STRESS Ernst I. Stjernberg, R.P.F., M.F. Senior Researcher Western Division
Author
Stjernberg, Ernst
Date
June 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Transport
Stresses
Storage
Pinus
Spruce
Seedlings
Reflectivity
Performance
Heat
British Columbia
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR-000115
Language
English
Abstract
Reflective tarpaulins are used extensively in Western Canada to protect tree seedlings against solar radiation during transportation and on-site storage prior to planting. This report outlines heat transfer characteristics of new and used reflective tarpaulins, and a FIST (Fiberglass Insulated Seedling Transporter) canopy. Containerized white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings were exposed to heat while stored in boxes under tarpaulins. In a separate laboratory experiment, seedlings were pre-conditioned and exposed to heat. All seedlings were outplanted in nursery plots, and survival and growth were monitored.
Seedlings
Seedling storage
REFLECTIVE TARPAULINS
Seedling stress
Heat stress
Seedling transportation
SEEDLING PERFORMANCE
British Columbia
White spruce
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57 records – page 1 of 6.