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Le bois issu des perturbations : une bonne source de bioénergie?

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8272
Author
Mercier, Guyta
Tousignant, Aude
Bernier, Pierre
Date
2016
Material Type
Technical note
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Mercier, Guyta
Tousignant, Aude
Bernier, Pierre
Date
2016
Material Type
Technical note
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Biomass
Bioenergy
Insects
Greenhouse gases GHG
Biomasse forestière
Bioénergie
Perturbation naturelle
Feux
Epidémie d'insectes,
Renouvelable
Résidus de coupe
Récupération des bois
Qualité du bois
Propriété physique
Mécanique
Bilan de carbone
Combustible fossile
Gaz à effet de serre
Series Number
OT 228
Language
French
Abstract
The demand for forest biomass for bioenergy production is increasing worldwide. Industrial residues (bark, sawdust and black liquor) and, to a lesser extent, logging residues (tree branches and tops) are currently the main sources of supply. However, forest disturbances such as fires and insect outbreaks could make large quantities of biomass available. Several Canadian Forest Service (CFS) researchers are working on projects related to the recovery of wood from disturbances for bioenergy purposes.
Abstract
La demande de biomasse forestière pour la production de bioénergie est en augmentation à l’échelle mondiale. Les résidus de l’industrie (écorces, sciures et liqueur noire) et, dans une moindre mesure, les résidus de coupe forestière (branches et cimes des arbres) en sont présentement les principales sources d’approvisionnement. Les perturbations forestières comme les feux et les épidémies d’insectes pourraient toutefois rendre disponibles de grandes quantités de biomasse. Plusieurs chercheurs du Service canadien des forêts (SCF) travaillent sur des projets en lien avec la récupération des bois de perturbations à des fins bioénergétiques.
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Characterising the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1219
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Permeability
Penetration
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1985
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists have previously observed that bluestained wood appears to have different dimensional stability characteristics than non-stained wood when subjected to repeated wetting and drying. Bluestained wood has also been reported to show increased permeability, which may make treatment with liquids such as wood preservatives easier. However, no data is available on how bluestained wood resulting from the beetle attack might affect. We therefore identified the need to generate data on the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability characteristics of bluestained wood compared with non-stained wood. To examine dimensional stability, specimens of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lumber were subjected to wetting/drying cycles. After 5 and 10 cycles, the amount of bow, crook, cupping, twist, and checking was measured. The permeability of the wood was also determined by weighing end-matched specimens before and after a 1-, 4-, and 24-hour dip or after a pressure treatment cycle with chromated copper arsenate preservative, and then calculating the uptake and preservative retention. The results clearly show that when repeatedly wetted and dried, such as occurs in exterior end uses, bluestained beetle-killed wood is more dimensionally stable (less cupping and twist) and checks less than non-stained sapwood, but is more permeable to water. The stresses appear to be relieved by many micro-checks rather than fewer large checks. Overall, the improved dimensional stability should result in the lumber made from stained wood remaining straighter. Increased permeability of the bluestained wood was confirmed by data showing enhanced chromated copper arsenate (CCA) uptake and penetration. One implication of the stained sapwood treating more readily than non-stained wood is that in batches of preservative-treated wood, the stained wood is liable to be overtreated or the non-stained wood undertreated. As anticipated, bluestain in the sapwood had no effect on the penetration of preservative into the heartwood, the most refractory part of the wood. Treatment with CCA also masked the bluestain by coloring it green. The increased permeability probably also has implications for ease of air or kiln drying and possibly reduced degrade in the kiln.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Defects
Preservatives - Permeability
Preservatives - Penetration
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Defects
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Characterising the gluing and finishing properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1220
Author
Williams, D.
Mucha, E.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37667
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Williams, D.
Mucha, E.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37667
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Laminate product
Insects
Glue
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1986
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. It is reported that bluestained wood has shown increased permeability, and questions arose as to whether the application of an adhesive or a finish coating may be adversely affected. Laminating of wood is a key value-added process and one that is very dependent on the quality of the bond between two or more components. Bluestain is a common phenomenon in the secondary wood processing industry where finishing is part of the value-adding process. The finishing evaluations made in this study were intended to benefit these processors. Pieces of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lodgepole pine lumber were dried to a moisture content typically targeted by the furniture sector — i.e., much drier than lumber used for structural purposes. From this lumber, specially constructed edge-glued panels were made which exhibited bluestained to bluestained joints and non-stained to non-stained joints. This construction method provides bluestained and non-stained joints for the laminating tests, as well as providing a good representation of what will really happen in an industrial setting where bluestain most likely will not be separated from non-stain. Each panel was cut in half, with one half being used for the laminating tests and the other half for the finishing evaluations. The strength and durability of the glue lines were measured. Various finish coatings either used alone or in combinations with others were subjectively evaluated. The laminating tests show that gluelines in lodgepole pine that contains beetle-transmitted bluestain were not significantly different in strength from gluelines in unstained wood when PVA and PRF adhesives are used. The durability of the bluestained beetle-killed wood gluelines easily met the requirements specified by the ASTM D1101 standard. Where desired, the appearance of bluestained wood can be enhanced or highlighted by a simple standard clear furniture finish. Bluestain in parts of edge-glued panels can be masked if certain types of finishes are employed. The finishes that gave more consistently good masking results were those containing blue, red, and charcoal tints in the stain, toner, or glaze coatings. Increased permeability of the bluestain did not affect the adherence of any of the finishes. While the finishing evaluations indicate the possibilities for finishing pine, whether it has bluestain or not, market research is recommended, using the best performing finishes on full-scale furniture pieces, to test consumer acceptance.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Board products - Finishing
Laminated products - Finishing
Glue line
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Characterising the mechanical properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1218
Author
Lum, Conroy
Date
August 2003
Edition
37665
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Lum, Conroy
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37665
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Mechanical properties
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1984
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. To determine whether this bluestained lumber differs in its strength properties from non-stained lumber, small clear wood tests and a test on a truss connector were conducted. Fourteen mills were approached and asked to provide an equal number of samples of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lumber. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained and non-stained samples were collected and delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. Small clear bending and toughness test specimens, meeting the general requirements of the standard test method ASTM D143, were prepared from an equal number of bluestained and non-stained lumber pieces. A subset of the bluestained and non-stained lumber sample was also selected and used to prepare metal plate-connected tension splice specimens. The three tests and the measured mechanical properties were judged to be sensitive indicators of any possible effects of bluestain on the structural performance of full-size lumber. For bluestain, an impact on the clear wood strength or the strength of the connector could be considered a precursor to a possible reduction in the structural performance of full-size lumber. Direct tests on full-size lumber tend to be confounded by the presence of strength-reducing growth characteristics such as knots or slope of grain, and are therefore more suited for quantifying a particular effect once it has been confirmed to exist. The following results were found:
Wood with beetle-transmitted bluestain and non-stained wood have comparable clear wood bending properties and truss plate grip capacity.
The observed lower mean toughness of bluestained wood compared to non-stained wood was found to be only marginally significant (p = 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference at toughness levels below the lower quartile of the strength distribution.
The small differences that appear to be associated with bluestain (5% decrease in mean toughness, and 5% increase in mean truss plate connector grip capacity) are more likely to be masked by differences in the mechanical properties of the heartwood and sapwood, and, in the case of full-size lumber, by the presence of strength-reducing growth characteristics such as knots and slope of grain.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Mechanical properties
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4505
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
January 2004
Edition
41292
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
January 2004
Edition
41292
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
British Columbia
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
W-2007
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report provides the methods and summarizes the results of Forintek research to characterize the properties of British Columbia lumber containing beetle-transmitted bluestain. In 2003 Forintek Canada Corp. collected approximately 30 pieces of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and an equivalent amount of non-bluestained lumber from each of 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. The geographic range of beetle attack was represented in the sampling plan. The wood was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. This research represents the first comprehensive study and compilation of the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part A

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4497
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Edition
41284
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
41284
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part B

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42919
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part C

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42920
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
Less detail

Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part D

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42921
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
Less detail

Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part E

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42922
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
Less detail

34 records – page 1 of 4.