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An evaluation of the detection capacity of automated defect detection systems

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42284
Author
Rancourt, V.
Date
July 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
was established. The following keywords were used to classify publications on the subject since 1990: (lumber
Author
Rancourt, V.
Date
July 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
85 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Lumber
Value added
Manufacturing
Series Number
General Revenue
E-3923
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The market for hardwood component production is currently affected by low-cost components importation from Asia. Industrial automation is an actual option for the secondary manufacturing industry to counter this situation. Integrating a defect detection system is a complex process and selecting the right system is even more complicated. This study proposes an approach for assessing the defect detection capabilities of different systems as well as a decision support tool to guide the producer toward the adequate equipment. The study is limited to assessing defect detection capacities; the overall system performance, the optimization software and the cutting equipment are not analyzed. Understanding the origin and characteristics of defects to be detected and the capacities and theoretical limits of vision technology are prerequisites. A sampling with defects that, due to properties such as their small size, are hard to detect, is assessed by each system and the results are compared. To date, the assessed systems are not capable of detecting all defects pertaining to hardwood component production. A decision support tool will make it possible to methodically select the equipment most appropriate to the producer’s needs and leads to an enlightened decision in terms of the producer’s priorities and expectations.
Defects - Detection
Lumber
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Assessment of accuracy of species-temperature correction tables for resistance-type moisture meters

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub744
Author
Mackay, J.F.Graham
Date
May 1984
Edition
37057
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1X2 May, 1984 P r o j e c t No.: 02-40-43-006 J.S. Swanson Manager Lumber
Author
Mackay, J.F.Graham
Date
May 1984
Edition
37057
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Moisture content
Lumber drying
Series Number
W-267
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Moisture determination, Electrical
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Assessment of combustibility parameters of structural composite lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3149
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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FPInnovations Assessment of Combustibility Parameters of Structural Composite Lumber March
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Structural composites
Lumber
Fire
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The present work aims at evaluating the combustibility characteristics (i.e. reaction to fire) of structural composite lumber (SCL) when tested in compliance with the cone calorimeter standard ISO 5660 [7, 8, 9]. More precisely, this study evaluates the heat release rate, total heat release, mass loss, effective heat of combustion, smoke obscuration as well as the presence of toxic gases when SCL products are tested in conformance with ISO 5660. Moreover, this study is solely focused on SCL elements that are thick enough to act as semi-infinite solids (thermally thick solids), as opposed to typical thin combustible finish products. Tests data are also compared to those obtained for visually-graded solid wood specimens of the SPF species group.
Combustibility
Composite Lumber
Laminated products - Fire resistance
Structural Composites - Properties
PDF
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Les Chambres à bois dans l'est du Canada: Résultats de sondage

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39885
Author
Favreau, Jean
Date
September 1993
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Favreau, Jean
Date
September 1993
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Wood
Lumber
Logging
Operations
Series Number
Communiqué technique ; Général ; CT G 20
Language
French
Abstract
L'arrivée de technologies permettant l'écorçage et le déchiquetage en forêt a suscité l'étude des aspects économiques relatifs aux chambres à bois à l'usine. Afin d'obtenir des données sur la productivité et les coûts de cette partie de l'usine, un questionnaire aux usines de pâte possédant une chambre à bois dans l'est du Canada.
Bois
PRODUCTIVITY
HUMIDITY
Economic
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Comparaison des différentes entrées d'équarrisseuses : tourne-billes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39051
Author
Bédard, P.
Fournier, Francis
Date
October 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bédard, P.
Fournier, Francis
Date
October 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Lumber
Manufacturing
Equipment
Series Number
E-4266
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude a été réalisée pour déterminer le niveau de performance optimal des systèmes de tourne-billes automatiques qui équipent la plupart des entrées d’équarrisseuse dans les scieries de bois résineux. L’étude a été réalisée avec un système de tourne-billes à rouleaux quadruple installé devant une entrée d’équarrisseuse de type SLI. Un premier test a permis d’établir la performance initiale du tourne-billes et d’identifier les principales sources d’erreurs de rotation. Une première série de correctifs mécaniques ont été apportés en collaboration avec le manufacturier d’équipement, puis un second test de performance a été réalisé. Une certaine amélioration a été notée, surtout au niveau du maintien des billes, après rotation. Une deuxième série de correctifs ont été apportés pour améliorer la précision de rotation dans le tourne-billes avant d’effectuer un dernier test de performance. Initialement, le système étudié affichait un taux d’erreur de rotation de 36 degrés d’écart-type. Après deux interventions techniques, le tourne-billes a atteint une précision de rotation de 24 degrés d’écart-type. Pour y arriver, certaines composantes mécaniques ont été modifiées et d’autres remplacées dû à l’usure. La programmation des PLC a aussi été revue pour mieux synchroniser les séquences de presses et mieux pré-positionner les rouleaux tourneurs. Une amélioration de rotation simulée de 36 à 24° d’écart-type signifie un gain économique de 2 %, soit 2 $/m³ pour la scierie étudiée. Toutefois le potentiel d’amélioration aurait été deux fois plus important si les erreurs de rotation avaient pu être réduites au niveau de 10 degrés d’écart-type. La précision de rotation aurait probablement pu être améliorée davantage, cependant ce niveau il est assez difficile à atteindre et surtout à maintenir avec la technologie actuelle. Dans le futur, de nouveaux types d’équipements devraient être développés par les manufacturiers pour obtenir de meilleurs résultats, plus spécifiquement pour le débitage des petites billes à haute vitesse. De plus, les tourne-billes pourraient bénéficier de l’ajout de systèmes de suivi et de contrôle en continu pour en assurer un fonctionnement optimal en tout temps. Des systèmes auto-correcteurs en boucle fermée devraient aussi améliorer la performance des tourne-billes à rouleaux.
tourne-billes
équarriseuse
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Continuous drying of softwood dimension lumber (progress report)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52785
Author
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Date
October 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
FPInnovations ─ Report Title 1 Continuous Drying of Softwood Dimension Lumber (Progress
Author
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Date
October 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
22 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Lumber
Softwoods
Testing
Simulation
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Continuous drying is still in its relatively early stages and mills are currently dealing with process adjustments to obtain desired throughput and quality of the final product. Field measurement carried out in 2015-16 illustrated a number of opportunities for process optimization involving each of the three main stages of current continuous kilns. Simulations of industrial continuous drying at laboratory level performed in 2016-17 were successful and allowed the evaluation of each of the drying stages to be fully characterized (lumber temperatures, drying schedule conditions of dry and wet bulb temperatures). Thus, different drying schedules provided an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of schedule conditions on drying defects, drying rates and kiln residence times. The main objectives of the project for 2017-18 were to simulate continuous drying in laboratory conditions for different products, products mix, species and green sort groups. In addition, a detailed evaluation of potential technologies was carried out to explore the concept of dynamically adjusting speed (push rates), based on drying rates and moisture content. Piecewise regression was used to identify the optimum push rate and suggest design modifications of continuous kilns. This method proved to be efficient in identifying potential reductions in drying time for different sorts of sprue/pine (SP) lumber without compromising the quality of the final product. Simulations also allowed identifying the push rate of 2 feet/h to satisfactorily dry green hem-fir 2-inch lumber. Initial tests showed that mid-sort sub-alpine (moisture content below approximately 70%) could not be mixed with wet sort SP in a continuous kiln operating at push rate of 4.2 feet/hr because only 73% of the sub-alpine sort dried below 21%. Decreases in push rate will reduce the percentage of sub-alpine fir wets but will also increase the amount of over-dried lumber. Changes in kiln configuration may reduce the drying time but increase the percentage of over-dried lumber. The results indicated that additional laboratory tests are required to develop drying schedules and temperature profiles in the main drying zone of continuous kilns, drying times and final moisture content distribution.
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Continuous monitoring of the primary breakdown process

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39074
Author
Fournier, Francis
Date
October 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
and lumber processing line. Optimized systems, however, require close monitoring and adequate parameters
Author
Fournier, Francis
Date
October 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Lumber
Optimization
Computer
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 5337
5337
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Sawmilling technology is becoming increasingly complex and, for the past 15 years, optimized systems have replaced human decision-making on the log and lumber processing line. Optimized systems, however, require close monitoring and adequate parameters. Given the increasing shortage of qualified personnel, the use of effective monitoring and control tools is more critical than ever. Monitoring systems are now required to shorten the periods of time during which the primary breakdown process is not controlled. This research report presents algorithms developed for monitoring the primary breakdown process. The method used to this end is based on available variables for the relevant machine centres. As this method does not require the installation of new sensors, it does not add to the maintenance burden. It should be noted, on the other hand, that certain components of the primary breakdown process cannot be monitored because of a lack of available variables. Such is the case for several mechanical components the monitoring of which requires the installation of specialized sensors. The algorithms generated by this project use simple mathematical models that can easily be adapted to the majority of softwood lumber sawmills. These models can be integrated into programmable controllers, data acquisition systems, in-house production monitoring software or specialized systems, such as the Smart Mill Assistant system. The economic potential of the monitoring models can be determined by using optimization system variables and offline monitoring models. The graphical representation of results generated by the models reveals the number of times the primary breakdown process deviated from process parameters, as well as the duration of such deviations. Their economic impact can be calculated on the basis of this information. The economic benefits of real-time monitoring and control systems depend on initial sawmill performance, the skill of sawmill personnel in quickly detecting and identifying process deviations and the time required to solve related problems.
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Contrôle en continu du débitage primaire

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39073
Author
Fournier, Francis
Date
October 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Fournier, Francis
Date
October 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Lumber
Optimization
Computer
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 5337
5337
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Les technologies utilisées dans l’industrie du sciage sont de plus en plus complexes et les systèmes optimisés ont remplacé les décisions humaines depuis les 15 dernières années. Les systèmes optimisés requièrent un suivi rigoureux et une paramétrisation adéquate. Le personnel qualifié devient rare, ce qui nécessite des outils de monitorage et de contrôle efficaces. Les systèmes de monitorage sont devenus essentiels pour réduire les périodes où le procédé est hors contrôle. Ce rapport de recherche présente les algorithmes développés pour la surveillance monitorage du débitage primaire. La méthodologie utilisée est basée sur l’utilisation des variables disponibles aux centres de transformation concernés. Cette méthodologie ne nécessite pas l’ajout de nouveaux capteurs, ce qui réduit l’entretien. Par contre, certaines composantes ou parties du procédé ne peuvent être monitorées puisque aucune variable n’est actuellement disponible. C’est en autre le cas pour plusieurs composantes mécaniques qui nécessitent l’ajout de capteurs spécialisés. Les algorithmes développés utilisent des modèles mathématiques simples et facilement applicables à la majorité des scieries résineuses. L’implantation de ces modèles pourra être faite à l’intérieur d’automates programmables, de systèmes d’acquisition de données, de logiciels maison de suivi de production ou de systèmes spécialisés comme le « Smart Mill Assistant ». Le potentiel économique des modèles de monitorage peut être évalué en utilisant les variables disponibles dans les systèmes d’optimisation et en utilisant les modèles de monitorage hors ligne (offline). En traçant graphiquement les résultats des modèles, il sera possible d’évaluer le nombre de fois et le temps total pendant lequel le procédé a été en déviation et de calculer le potentiel économique. Ce potentiel économique des systèmes de monitorage et de contrôle en temps réel dépend de la performance de départ de la scierie, de la capacité du personnel en place pour détecter et identifier rapidement les déviations du procédé et du temps requis pour la correction des problèmes.
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Conversion factors for the forest products industry in Eastern Canada

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38490
Author
Kostiuk, Alan P.
Date
July 1993
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
4 4.2 CONVERSION FACTOR PROBLEMS OBSERVED 4 4.2.1 Wood Consumption Expressions 5 4.2.2 Lumber Yield
Author
Kostiuk, Alan P.
Date
July 1993
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Lumber
Yield
Recovery
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 13
3715K345
E-1416
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
To produce in 1993 a conversion factors publication which will help the forest products industry and government agencies in eastern Canada improve the usefulness and comparability of wood consumption and forest product yield information, by reducing errors and inaccuracies caused by frequent misinterpretation of units and inappropriate conversions.
Forest Products Endustry
Conversion factors
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A cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of Canadian hardwood lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39863
Author
Mahalle, Lal
Date
September 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Mahalle, Lal
Date
September 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
35 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Lumber
Hardwoods
Environment
Language
English
Abstract
This study presents a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) of hardwood lumber produced in eastern Canada. LCA is a comprehensive analytical examination of the flows to and from nature related to a product or a process. LCA is typically performed following international protocols and is considered by many to be the best mechanism for quantifying the true environmental footprint of a product. An LCA can address some or all of the stages in the life of a product. This LCA addresses environmental impacts up to the mill “gate” for hardwood lumber; such a cradle-to-gate assessment is typical for products that are usually destined to be components in any number of secondary products. For those secondary products, a full cradle-to-grave LCA could be developed (incorporating effects from transportation, installation, usage and disposal), using the cradle-to-gate LCA as part of the input data. 201002820 - 1.1
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55 records – page 1 of 6.