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Basic procedures for sampling and analyzing woody biomass

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3318
Author
Marinescu, Marian
Volpé, Sylvain
Desrochers, Luc
Roser, Dominik
Date
January 2015
Edition
39982
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
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and Analysis of Biomass Samples Separating Biomass Samples: Coning and Quartering Analyzing the Moisture
Author
Marinescu, Marian
Volpé, Sylvain
Desrochers, Luc
Roser, Dominik
Date
January 2015
Edition
39982
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Biomass
Bioenergy
Sampling
Physical properties
Moisture content
Particle size
Bulk density
Standards
Advantage
Series Number
Advantage ; Vol. 15, No. 5
Language
English
Abstract
Biomass sampling and analysis play decisive roles in determining the characteristics and value of the woody biomass fuel used in bioenergy systems in Canada. Sampling and analysis standards help harmonize the procedures that are used to monitor biomass quality. Because there are no Canada- wide biomass sampling standards, facilities that produce and use woody biomass have developed and implemented in-house sampling procedures of varying degrees of complexity. Given that the use of woody biomass in Canada is predicted to increase, the ability to ensure the quality of biomass will become increasingly important in order to control costs and maximize system efficiency.
BIOMASS
Biofuels
Bioenergy
MOISTURE CONTENT
BULK DENSITY
Bark content
Contamination
ASH
Lignin
CARBOHYDRATES
EXTRACTIVES
Abstract
L’échantillonnage et l’analyse de la biomasse jouent un rôle décisif dans la détermination des caractéristiques et de la valeur des combustibles de biomasse ligneuse utilisés dans les systèmes de bioénergie au Canada. Les normes d’échantillonnage et d’analyse contribuent à harmoniser les méthodes utilisées pour évaluer la qualité de la biomasse. Il n’existe pas de normes d’échantillonnage pancanadiennes; les usines qui produisent ou utilisent la biomasse ligneuse ont donc élaboré et appliqué des méthodes d’échantillonnage maison de niveau de complexité variable. Comme on prévoit une augmentation de l’utilisation de la biomasse ligneuse au Canada, les compétences permettant de garantir sa qualité deviendront de plus en plus importantes pour limiter les coûts et maximiser l’efficacité des systèmes.
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Caractéristiques cruciales de la biomasse pour les applications les plus courantes en bioénergie et biocarburants

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3102
Author
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Edition
39759
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
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Author
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Edition
39759
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Biomass
Bioenergy
Moisture content
Physical properties
Advantage
Series Number
Avantage ; Vol. 14, No. 3
Language
French
ISSN
14933381
Abstract
Le présent document décrit les caractéristiques cruciales de la biomasse comme le format et la taille, la teneur en dumidité, la densité apparente, la teneur en feuillage/écorce, la contamination, la teneur en cendres, en lignine, en dydratesde carbone et en produitsd'extraction ainsi que la valeur calorifique pour les applications les plus courantes de production de bioénergie et de biocarburants : combustions directe, gazéification, pyrolyse, torréfacgtion, fermentation et densification. Le document est distiné aux professionnels de la foresterie, de la transformation du bois, des pâtes et papiers et de la biomasse qui cherchent de l'information de base sur ces caractéristiques essentielles.
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Critical biomass attributes of the most common bioenergy and biofuel applications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39735
Author
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
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common bioenergy and biofuel applications Keywords Biomass, Biofuel, Bioenergy, Moisture content
Author
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Biomass
Bioenergy
Moisture content
Physical properties
Advantage
Series Number
Advantage ; Vol. 14, No. 3
Language
English
ISSN
14933381
Abstract
This primer presents critical attributes such as format and size; moisture content; bulk density; foliage/bark content; contamination; ash, lignin, carbohydrate, and extractive contents; and calorific value of the most common bioenergy and biofuel applications; direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, fermentation, and densification. The primer is aimed at forestry, wood processing, pulp and paper, and biomass professionals who are interested in basic information about these critical attributes.
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Design example : designing for openings in wood diaphragm

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6030
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Edition
42999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
36 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3080
Language
English
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Design example : design of stacked multi-storey wood-based shear walls using a mechanics-based approach

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6034
Author
Newfield, G.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
43003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Newfield, G.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
43003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Walls
Series Number
W-3084
Language
English
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Design example : wood diaphragm on reinforced CMU shearwalls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6029
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Edition
42998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Walls
Series Number
W-3079
Language
English
Abstract
N/A
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Design example : wood diaphragm using envelope method

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6031
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Edition
43000
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
43000
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3081
Language
English
Abstract
N/A
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Diaphragm flexibility

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6028
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Edition
42997
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42997
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Walls
Series Number
W-3078
Language
English
Abstract
Diaphragms are essential to transfer lateral forces in the plane of the diaphragms to supporting shear walls underneath. As the distribution of lateral force to shear walls is dependent on the relative stiffness/flexibility of diaphragm to the shear walls, it is critical to know the stiffness of both diaphragm and shear walls, so that appropriate lateral force applied on shear walls can be assigned. In design, diaphragms can be treated as flexible, rigid or semi-rigid. For a diaphragm that is designated as flexible, the in-plane forces can be assumed to be distributed to the shear walls according to the tributary areas associated with each shear wall. For a diaphragm that is designated as rigid, the loads are assumed to be distributed according to the relative stiffness of the shear walls, with consideration of additional shear force due to torsion for seismic design. In reality, diaphragm is neither purely flexible nor completely rigid, and is more realistically to be treated as semi-rigid. In this case, computer analysis using either plate or diagonal strut elements can be used and the load-deflection properties of the diaphragm will result in force distribution somewhere between the flexible and rigid models. However, alternatively envelope approach which takes the highest forces from rigid and flexible assumptions can be used as a conservative estimation in lieu of computer analysis.
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Field monitoring of hygrothermal performance of a wood-frame house in the Lower Mainland of BC built to the passive house standard

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6071
Author
Wang, Jieying
Mistretta, S.
Date
March 2014
Edition
43873
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Wang, Jieying
Mistretta, S.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2014
Edition
43873
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
30 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3100
Language
English
Abstract
A single-family wood-frame house in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia built to the German Passivhaus (Passive House) standard was monitored to investigate its thermal performance and durability in this mild climate. Two double-stud walls, south- and north-facing, were instrumented during construction to measure moisture and thermal performance. A limited amount of thermal modelling was conducted to compare with the field measurements. Monitoring over the past 20 months showed that:
The double-stud walls, south- and north-facing, were both performing well in terms of durability. The moisture content (MC) measured at the bottom of the studs was in general below 15% after the construction was completed. The MC of the south-facing wall dropped from an initial 20%, measured during construction, to about 11% after construction was completed. During the same period of time, the MC of the north-facing wall fell from about 19% to 15%; the slightly higher MC in this wall compared to that in the south-facing wall was a result of lower amounts of solar gain in this orientation.
The relative humidity (RH) measured on the interior side of the medium-density fibreboard (MDF) exterior sheathing in the south-facing wall ranged from 70% to 80%, and occasionally up to 90% during the winter. Being typical of exterior sheathing conditions without exterior insulation in this mild climate, the corresponding RH ranged from 80% up to 100% in the north-facing wall in the winter, indicating potential vapour condensation at this critical location.
Based on vapour pressure analysis, no steep vapour pressure gradients between any specific layers were found in these two walls, indicating the overall vapour permeable nature and good drying performance of the wall design. This could be partially attributed to the use of plywood as structural sheathing located between the double-stud walls as the air barrier and vapour retarding layer, and using MDF as the exterior sheathing.
In the south-facing wall, the vapour pressure analysis showed a vapour drive in the summer from the exterior layers towards the interior layer, primarily due to high temperature outside. The exterior sheathing should have good drying potential if wetting occurred. On the other hand, the partial vapour pressures were largely consistent across the north-facing wall in the winter, not showing a strong vapour drive from interior to exterior in this mild climate. The exterior sheathing would have poor drying performance if wetting occurred in this location.
The simulated temperature distributions based on THERM 6.3 simulations were generally in good agreement with the measured temperatures across the walls, indicating that the thermal simulation was reasonably accurate. The effective R-value of the double-stud walls of this passive house was calculated to be approximately R-50 (hržft2žF/Btu) or RSI-8.8 (m2K)/W) (i.e. with a thermal transmission coefficient of 0.114 W/m2žK). The use of heat flux sensors was not successful in this work, probably due to improper sensor calibration or in-situ installation. Its use needs further exploration to measure heat flow in building envelopes in order to validate calculated effective thermal insulation.
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Linear dynamic analysis for wood-based shear walls & podium structures : Part 1 : Developing input parameters for linear dynamic analysis

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6032
Author
Newfield, G.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
43001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
shrinkage due to change of moisture content can cause gaps in the anchorage system which can lead
Author
Newfield, G.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
43001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Walls
Series Number
W-3082
Language
English
Abstract
Utilizing Linear Dynamic Analysis (LDA) for designing steel and concrete structures has been common practice over the last 25 years. Once preliminary member sizes have been determined for either steel or concrete, building a model for LDA is generally easy as the member sizes and appropriate stiffness can be easily input into any analysis program. However, performing an LDA for a conventional wood-frame structure has been, until recently, essentially non-existent in practice. The biggest challenge is that the stiffness properties required to perform an LDA for a wood-based system are not as easily determined as they are for concrete or steel structures. This is mostly due to the complexities associated with determining the initial parameters required to perform the analysis. With the height limit for combustible construction limited to four stories under the National Building Code of Canada, it was uncommon for designers to perform detailed analysis to determine the stiffness of shear walls, distribution of forces, deflections, and inter-storey drifts. It was only in rare situations where one may have opted to check building deflections. With the recent change in allowable building heights for combustible buildings from four to six storeys under an amendment to the 2006 BC Building Code, it has become even more important that designers consider more sophisticated methods for the analysis and design of wood-based shear walls. As height limits increase, engineers should also be more concerned with the assumptions made in determining the relative stiffness of walls, distribution of forces, deflections, and inter-storey drifts to ensure that a building is properly detailed to meet the minimum Code objectives. Although the use of LDA has not been common practice, the more rigorous analysis, as demonstrated in the APEGBC bulletin on 5- and 6-storey wood-frame residential building projects (APEGBC 2011), could be considered the next step which allows one to perform an LDA. This fact sheet provides a method to assist designers who may want to consider an LDA for analyzing wood-frame structures. It is important to note that while LDA may provide useful information as well as streamline the design of wood-frame structures, it most often will not be necessary. However, designers may consider using LDA for the following reasons:
Consider the effect of higher mode participation on force distributions and deflections.
Better determine building deflections and floor drifts.
Allow for three-dimensional modelling.
Reduce the minimum Code torsional effect required under the equivalent static design.
Better consider the effect of podium structures (vertical changes in RdRo).
Compare the stiffness of various shear wall systems where mixed systems are used.
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17 records – page 1 of 2.