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Drying of balsam and subalpine fir: for a better understanding

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52906
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
November 2019
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
moisture content Wet pockets Vincent Lavoie, Senior Researcher, Smart Manufacturing DRYING OF BALSAM
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
November 2019
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Air drying
Balsam
Drying
Fir
Logs
Lumber
Moisture content
Performance
Sawmills
Subalpine fir
Wet pockets
Wood yards
Series Number
FPI WP 2019
Language
English
Abstract
The findings of recent studies from both eastern and western Canada have shown that the drying behaviour of subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa) and balsam fir (A. balsamea) is similar, which allows common solutions to be applied based on research conducted on one species of fir or the other. This article summarizes previous research findings and good practices that can be adopted in the short term to improve the drying of fir.
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L'eau et la durabilité : fiche technique sur la performance de la construction à ossature de bois

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42416
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Société centrale d'hypothèques et de logement (SCHL)
Date
April 2000
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Société centrale d'hypothèques et de logement (SCHL)
Date
April 2000
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Moisture content
Wood decay
Series Number
Fact Sheet on Wood in Construction = Fiche technique sur le bois dans la construction
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Moisture - Control
Moisture - Prevention
Buildings - Houses - Moisture content
Decay - Prevention
Building construction - Design
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Essai d'un humidimètre NIR pour mesurer la teneur en humidité de bois feuillu

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5777
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Lejeune, Claude
Tanguay, F.
Dupont, Danick
Ding, Feng
Date
March 2013
Edition
39752
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Lejeune, Claude
Tanguay, F.
Dupont, Danick
Ding, Feng
Contributor
CRIQ
Date
March 2013
Edition
39752
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Moisture content
Hardwoods
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Le mandat du projet consiste en la réalisation d’essais avec un équipement d’acquisition générique NIR (Near Infrared) dans le but de développer des modèles mathématiques pouvant être utilisés pour déterminer le taux d’humidité des planches de bois franc pour quatre essences : le chêne rouge, l’érable à sucre, le merisier et l’érable argenté. Une fois les modèles développés les objectifs plus spécifiques sont d’évaluer le niveau de précision de mesure de la teneur en humidité sur du bois parfaitement équilibré ainsi que déterminer les impacts sur les lectures provenant des facteurs suivants : l’essence, la densité, la qualité de surface, la température du bois, le gradient de teneur en humidité ainsi que la vitesse de passage des planches. Finalement, des essais doivent être réalisés sur du bois provenant directement de l’industrie et n’ayant subi aucun traitement d’équilibrage en laboratoire pour connaître le niveau de précision de lecture dans ces conditions.
MOISTURE METERS
HARDWOODS
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Facteurs influant sur la precision de la lecture du degre d'humidite d'un hygrometre a usage continu (Mars 1989)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5647
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Pfaff, Frank
Morin, M.
Date
March 1991
Edition
38439
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
- applications to moisture content measurement. Compte rendu du séminaire sur la technologie du balayage
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Pfaff, Frank
Morin, M.
Date
March 1991
Edition
38439
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
30 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Moisture content
Series Number
E-1273
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
French
Abstract
Moisture Determination, Electrical - Accuracy
Moisture Meters (In-line)
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Factors influencing accuracy of MC estimates from an in-line moisture meter

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38333
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Pfaff, Frank
Date
March 1989
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Pfaff, Frank
Date
March 1989
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
33 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Moisture content
Series Number
3743K404
E-1069
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Moisture Determination, Electrical - Accuracy
Moisture Meters, In-line
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Field measurement of vertical movement and roof moisture performance of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre : instrumentation and first year's performance

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub44205
Author
Wang, Jieying
Date
March 2015
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
PDF
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Author
Wang, Jieying
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2015
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
British Columbia
Building construction
Laminate product
Moisture content
Performance
Test methods
Series Number
301008940
Language
English
Abstract
Two of the major topics of interest to those designing taller and larger wood buildings are the susceptibility to differential movement and the likelihood of mass timber components drying slowly after they are wetted during construction. The Wood Innovation and Design Centre in Prince George, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. Field measurements also provide performance data to support regulatory and market acceptance of wood-based systems in tall and large buildings. This report first describes instrumentation to measure the vertical movement of selected glulam columns and cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls in this building. Three locations of glulam columns and one CLT wall of the core structure were selected for measuring vertical movement along with the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) in the immediate vicinity. The report then describes instrumentation to measure the moisture changes in the wood roof structure. Six locations in the roof were selected and instrumented for measuring moisture changes in the wood as well as the local environmental conditions. All sensors and instrumentations, with the exception of one, were installed and became operational in the middle of March 2014, after the roof sheathing was installed. The other instrumentation was installed in July 2014. This report presents performance of the building during its first year as measured from topping out of the structure. In the end, the one-year period covers six months of construction and six months of occupancy. This is the first year of a planned five-year monitoring. The first year’s monitoring showed that the wood inside the building had reached moisture content (MC) of about 4-6% in the heating season, from an initial MC of 13% during construction. Glulam columns were extremely dimensionally stable given the changes in MC and loading conditions. With a height of over 5 m and 6 m, respectively, the two glulam columns measured in this study showed very small amounts of vertical movement, each below 2 mm. The cumulative shortening of the six glulam columns along the height of the building would be about 8 mm, not taking into account deformation at connection details or effects of reduced loads on upper floors. The CLT wall was found to be also dimensionally stable along the height of the building. The measurements showed that the entire CLT wall, from Floor 1 to Floor 6, would shorten about 14 mm. The CLT floors, however, had considerable shrinkage in the thickness direction, and therefore should be taken into consideration in the design and construction of components, such as curtain walls, which are connected to the floors. In terms of the roof performance, two locations, both with a wet concrete layer poured above the plywood sheathing, showed wetness during construction but dried slowly afterwards. The good drying performance must be attributed to the interior ventilation function designed for the roof assemblies by integrating strapping between the sheathing and the mass timber beams below. Overall this monitoring study shows the differential movement occurring among the glulam columns and the CLT wall is small and the wood roof has good drying performance.
PDF
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Field monitoring of hygrothermal performance of a wood-frame house in the Lower Mainland of BC built to the passive house standard

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6071
Author
Wang, Jieying
Mistretta, S.
Date
March 2014
Edition
43873
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Wang, Jieying
Mistretta, S.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2014
Edition
43873
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
30 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3100
Language
English
Abstract
A single-family wood-frame house in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia built to the German Passivhaus (Passive House) standard was monitored to investigate its thermal performance and durability in this mild climate. Two double-stud walls, south- and north-facing, were instrumented during construction to measure moisture and thermal performance. A limited amount of thermal modelling was conducted to compare with the field measurements. Monitoring over the past 20 months showed that:
The double-stud walls, south- and north-facing, were both performing well in terms of durability. The moisture content (MC) measured at the bottom of the studs was in general below 15% after the construction was completed. The MC of the south-facing wall dropped from an initial 20%, measured during construction, to about 11% after construction was completed. During the same period of time, the MC of the north-facing wall fell from about 19% to 15%; the slightly higher MC in this wall compared to that in the south-facing wall was a result of lower amounts of solar gain in this orientation.
The relative humidity (RH) measured on the interior side of the medium-density fibreboard (MDF) exterior sheathing in the south-facing wall ranged from 70% to 80%, and occasionally up to 90% during the winter. Being typical of exterior sheathing conditions without exterior insulation in this mild climate, the corresponding RH ranged from 80% up to 100% in the north-facing wall in the winter, indicating potential vapour condensation at this critical location.
Based on vapour pressure analysis, no steep vapour pressure gradients between any specific layers were found in these two walls, indicating the overall vapour permeable nature and good drying performance of the wall design. This could be partially attributed to the use of plywood as structural sheathing located between the double-stud walls as the air barrier and vapour retarding layer, and using MDF as the exterior sheathing.
In the south-facing wall, the vapour pressure analysis showed a vapour drive in the summer from the exterior layers towards the interior layer, primarily due to high temperature outside. The exterior sheathing should have good drying potential if wetting occurred. On the other hand, the partial vapour pressures were largely consistent across the north-facing wall in the winter, not showing a strong vapour drive from interior to exterior in this mild climate. The exterior sheathing would have poor drying performance if wetting occurred in this location.
The simulated temperature distributions based on THERM 6.3 simulations were generally in good agreement with the measured temperatures across the walls, indicating that the thermal simulation was reasonably accurate. The effective R-value of the double-stud walls of this passive house was calculated to be approximately R-50 (hržft2žF/Btu) or RSI-8.8 (m2K)/W) (i.e. with a thermal transmission coefficient of 0.114 W/m2žK). The use of heat flux sensors was not successful in this work, probably due to improper sensor calibration or in-situ installation. Its use needs further exploration to measure heat flow in building envelopes in order to validate calculated effective thermal insulation.
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Flotation of western hemlock

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52863
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
May 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Fibre Supply
PDF
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Abstract There was no change to the moisture content of any of the western hemlock log sample sets
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
May 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Trees
Moisture content
Water
Transport
Series Number
Report
Language
English
Abstract
There was no change to the moisture content of any of the western hemlock log sample sets during the study period between 1 Dec 2014 and 5 mar 2015. It seems that this lack of change is related to stability in environmental humidity experienced by the logs. Whether or not time since cutting influences the ability of Hw logs to change moisture content could not be conclusively determined by the study.
PDF
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Hemlock drying in coastal BC: 2015-2016

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49817
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
, there are two distinct trajectories for hemlock wood moisture content, depending on if the tree was felled
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Wood
Drying
British Columbia
Moisture content
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2018 n.14
Language
English
Abstract
Based on the data from this study and a literature review, there are two distinct trajectories for hemlock wood moisture content, depending on if the tree was felled before or after May. Hemlock trees felled before May gain the full benefit of spring drying according to the ambient conditions of their local micro-climate. Trees felled after May suffer from a physiological spike in moisture content that the tree generates to promote its growth and survive the summer soil drought.
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Hemlock drying update: 2016/17

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49818
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
March 2018
Material Type
InfoNote
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
March 2018
Material Type
InfoNote
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Wood
Drying
British Columbia
Moisture content
Series Number
InfoNote ; 2018 n. 7
Language
English
Abstract
The problem of second-growth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) sinking when watered continues to plague the coastal logging industry of British Columbia. A study conducted by FPInnovations in 2015-16 concluded that felled hemlock logs took two distinct trajectories in their drying patterns through time, depending on whether they were felled before or after May.
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InfoNote2018N7.PDF

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53 records – page 2 of 6.