Ce guide donne de l'information détaillée sur les biocombustibles solides qui sont disponibles en Ontario et sur les systèmes de combustion qui peuvent brûler ces biocombustibles. Les quatre types de biocombustibles solides dont il est question dans ce guide sont le bois de chauffage, les copeaux de bois, les briquettes de bois et les granules de bois. Les trois types de systèmes de combustion sont les poêles, les générateurs d'air chaud et les chadières. Ce guide présente les principales considérations en ce qui concerne l'approvisionnement et l'utilisation de chaque type de biocombustible et système de combustion pour les applications instituttionnelles/commerciales et résidentielles.
In this study, the potential for increased consumption of wood in Ontario non-residential building construction is estimated based on a 47-building sample of 2005 building permits in the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo. For the sample, structural materials were determined through phone surveys with each architect or contractor. Each project was then compared against the height and area limits for combustible construction in the Ontario Building Code. Actual market share for wood is described, as well as potential market share if all buildings allowed by code to be wood actually were. Then, potential incremental wood volume consumption is calculated for this currently uncaptured market. In addition, local design practitioners were interviewed (seven people in five offices) to help clarify the construction environment and attitudes towards wood in this region. The survey data, the interviews, and previous research on non-residential growth potential were then synthesized into a set of near-term recommendations for the Ontario WoodWORKS! program.
In 1996, Forintek Canada Corp. set up a test of borate-treated lumber above ground, protected from rain but exposed to termites, in Kincardine, Ontario. The relative humidity ranged from 75 to 100% and the temperature ranged from -10°C to 20°C. The material included hemlock and amabilis fir lumber treated with borate and chromated copper arsenate (CCA). After seven years of exposure, generally all of the treated material was found to be performing equally well, with some pieces showing residual signs of earlier superficial feeding or cosmetic damage. Attack was moderate on untreated controls.
North American subterranean termites have become a major factor limiting the service life of wood products in southwestern Ontario. If preservative treatment can be demonstrated to prevent termite attack, the market for wood products could be maintained and expanded. With the assistance of the town of Kincardine, Ontario, Forintek set up a termite test site in 1988. The material used included red pine, lodgepole pine, jack pine, hemlock, white spruce and mixed spruce-pine-fir. The preservatives were chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ). Both incised and unincised lumber was included in the tests where possible. Also used was CCA-treated hem-fir plywood.
The material was inspected in the summer of 1999. Treated material was generally performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial surface feeding, or cosmetic damage. Some samples that had lower assay retentions and preservative penetrations showed more than just trace nibbles and termites appeared to have actually penetrated through the outer treated zone. It appeared that termite entry occurred in areas on the wood surface where defects may have facilitated such entry. Material that came close to meeting CSA O80 standards for ground contact generally suffered only minor damage.
North American subterranean termites are established in a number of locations in southwestern Ontario. They have become one of the major factors limiting the service life of wood products in this area. If preservative treatment can be demonstrated to prevent termite attack, the market for wood products can be maintained and expanded. With the assistance of the city of Kincardine, Ontario, Forintek set up a termite test site in 1988. Most of the lumber for installation in the test plot was provided by Canadian wood treating plants. Additional lumber was purchased at local retailers. The majority of the material was red pine, lodgepole pine, jack pine, white spruce or mixed spruce-pine-fir. Treatments included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) and, in western hemlock only, ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ). Both incised and unincised lumber was included in the tests where possible. CCA-treated hem-fir plywood was also used. All the cut ends were brush-treated with copper naphthenate. Some samples were placed with the pressure-treated ends in the ground and others with the brush-treated ends in the ground. The material was inspected in the summer of 1996. There was no indication of a difference in performance depending on which end was in the ground so the data were amalgamated. Treated material for the most part was generally performing well with some pieces starting to show initial signs of termite attack. In most cases this consisted of signs of superficial surface feeding or "cosmetic damage". A few of the samples that had lower assay retentions and preservative penetrations showed more than just trace nibbles where termites appeared to have actually penetrated through the outer treated zone. It also seemed that termite entry occurred in areas on the wood surface where defects may have facilitated such entry. Material that came close to meeting CSA O80 standards for ground contact generally suffered only minor damage.