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Time-dependent behavior of cross-laminated timber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub43013
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
70 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Building construction
Design
Laminate product
Panels
Timber
Series Number
Transformative Technologies No. 1.1.12
W-3092
Language
English
Abstract
Cross laminated timber (CLT) panels were manufactured and tested to assess their time dependent behaviour. This study is intended to help guide the development of an appropriate test method and acceptance criteria to account for duration of load and creep effects in the design of structures using CLT. Nine CLT panels of different qualities and using different wood species combinations were manufactured at a pre-commercial pilot plant out of local wood species. The CLT panels manufactured in this study were pressed at about 54% lower pressure than the minimum vertical pressure specified by the adhesive manufacturer due to a limitation of the press, so the CLT panels are viewed as a simulated defective sample, which may occur in a production environment due to material- or process-related issues. Full-size CLT panels were initially tested non-destructively to assess their bending stiffness. Then, billets were ripped from the full-size CLT panels, and tested to failure in 1-minute and 10-hour ramp tests, or assessed in creep tests under sustained load. The constant loads imposed on the CLT billets tested in creep were calculated as to allow for a maximum deflection of L/180. Following two cycles of loading and relaxation, the CLT billets tested in creep were further tested to failure at the end. The principles of ASTM D6815-09 and those of an in-house FPInnovations protocol were applied to assess the time dependent behavior of the CLT billets. The main test findings are summarized below:
In terms of residual stiffness, the percentage change in the initial bending stiffness for the CLT billets subjected to the 10-hour ramp test varied between 0-5%, showing a 3% drop in stiffness on average, while that for the CLT billets tested in creep ranged between 0-3%, showing a 1% stiffness drop on average. These are regarded as relatively small changes in bending stiffness.
In general, decreasing creep rates were observed on most of the CLT billets especially in the first cycle up to 90 days. The creep rates went up after 120 days of loading due to an increase in temperature and relative humidity conditions, which greatly affect the rate of deflection and recovery of wood products.
Fractional deflections were calculated for all the CLT billets after 30-day intervals and found to be less than or equal to 1.43.
Creep recovery was above 36% after 30-day, 60-day, and 90-day recovery periods in the first cycle. However, in the second cycle, creep recovery for some CLT billets dropped below 20% for certain time periods. ASTM D6815-09 provides specifications for evaluation of duration of load and creep effects of wood and wood-based products. The standard was designed to accommodate wood products that can be easily sampled, handled, and tested under load for minimum 90 days and up to 120 days. The standard requires a minimum sample size of 28 specimens. Because of its large dimensions, CLT products are not feasible for experiments requiring such large sample sizes. However, the findings of this study revealed potential for some of the acceptance criteria in ASTM D6815-09 to be applied to CLT products. The CLT billets in this study were assessed in accordance to the creep rate, fractional deflection, and creep recovery criteria in ASTM D6815-09 standard. All CLT billets tested in this study showed (1) decreasing creep rates after 90/120 days of loading, (2) fractional deflections less than 2.0 after 90-day loading, and (3) higher creep recovery than 20% after 30 days of unloading, as required by ASTM D6815-09. A single replicate billet was used per CLT configuration instead of the minimum sample size required by the standard which may have an effect on the findings.
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Design models for CLT shearwalls and assemblies based on connection properties

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6035
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Gavric, I.
Date
April 2014
Edition
43014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Gavric, I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2014
Edition
43014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
115 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Design
Laminate product
Panels
Timber
Series Number
Transformative Technologies
W-3093
Language
English
Abstract
The work presented in this report is a continuation of the FPInnovations' research project on determining the performance of the CLT as a structural system under lateral loads. As currently there are no standardized methods for determining the resistance of CLT shearwalls under lateral loads, the design approaches are left at discretion of the designers. The most common approach that is currently used in Europe and North America assumes that the resistance of CLT walls is a simple summary of the shear resistance of all connectors at the bottom of the wall. In this report some new analytical models for predicting of the design (factored) resistance of CLT walls under lateral loads were developed based on connection properties. These new models were than evaluated for their consistency along with the models that are currently used in North America and in Europe. In total five different design models (approaches) were used in the study, the two existing models and three newly developed ones. All models were used to predict the factored lateral load resistances of various CLT wall configurations tested in 2010 at FPInnovations. The analyzed walls had different aspect ratios and segmentation, different vertical load levels, different connection layouts and different fasteners in the connections (ring nails, spiral nails and screws). The design values obtained using the various analytical models were compared with the maximum forces and yielding forces obtained from the experimental tests. Ratios between the ultimate loads obtained from experimental tests and design values obtained by the five analytical design models were used as a measure for the consistency of the models. Newly developed models that account for sliding-uplift interaction in the brackets (models D3-D5) showed higher level of consistency compared to existing ones. The analytical model D4 that accounts for sliding-uplift interaction according to a circular domain, is probably the best candidate for future development of design procedures for determining resistance of CLT walls under lateral loads. In case of coupled CLT walls, contribution of vertical load to the wall lateral resistance was found to be two times lower than in case of single wall element with the same geometry and vertical load. Special attention in the coupled walls design should be given to step joints between the adjacent wall panels. Over-design of the step joint can result in completely different wall behavior in terms of mechanical properties (strength, ductility, deformation capacity, etc.) that those predicted. It should be noted that conclusions made in this report are made based on the comparison to the tested configurations only. Additional experimental data or results from numerical parametric analyses are needed to cover additional variations in wall parameters such as wall geometry and aspect ratio, layout of connectors (hold-downs, brackets), type and number of fasteners used in the connectors, and the amount of vertical load. The findings in this report, however, give a solid base for the development of seismic design procedure for CLT structures. Such procedure should also include capacity based design principles, which take into account statistical distributions of connections resistances.
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Reinforcing phenolic resins with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) for manufacturing wood composite panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6018
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Bouchard, Jean
Zhang, Yaolin
Jiang, Z.H.
Date
January 2013
Edition
42915
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Composite Panels Project No.201003748  2013 FPInnovations. All rights reserved. FPInnovations
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Bouchard, Jean
Zhang, Yaolin
Jiang, Z.H.
Contributor
Québec Ministère des Ressources naturelles
Date
January 2013
Edition
42915
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
57 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Transformation & Interfaces
Subject
Test methods
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)
Adhesives
Phenolic Resins
Wood composite panels
Series Number
E-4822
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The main objective of this project was to introduce NCC into the phenolic resin system as a reinforcing agent for improving the resin’s bond quality and durability in the manufacture of oriented strand board (OSB). The approaches adopted in this project can be outlined as follows: Develop a procedure or a new process technology to uniformly incorporate NCC into the phenolic resin system including phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and lignin-based PF resin; Develop new formulations for the NCC-phenolic adhesive system in both liquid and powder forms; Characterize NCC-PF and NCC-lignin-PF resins with differential analytical techniques; Manufacture OSB panels with NCC-PF and NCC-lignin-PF resins; Quantify the performance improvement of OSB panel by evaluating the resulting panel for physical and mechanical properties.
PDF
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Determination and prediction of the creep behavior and performance of light weight hollow core panel under long term static loading and high humidity conditions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5749
Author
Deng, James
Côté, Francine
Semple, Katherine
Sam-Brew, S.
Date
May 2012
Edition
39434
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
of light weight hollow core sandwich panels. The experiment focused on the investigation of creep behavior
Author
Deng, James
Côté, Francine
Semple, Katherine
Sam-Brew, S.
Date
May 2012
Edition
39434
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
31 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Panels
Humidity
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI-11-08
Project no.201005269
E-4786
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This report summarizes the experimental works that was carried out for a one-year research project developed as the continuation of previous research projects on the subject of light weight hollow core sandwich panels. The experiment focused on the investigation of creep behavior of light weight hollow core panel under long term static loading and high humidity conditions and its correlation with short term properties. Five types of surface panels were used, namely, 3.2 mm thick high density fibreboard with birch veneer on both sides, two thicknesses of M2 grade particleboard (6.3 mm and 9.5 mm) and two thicknesses of medium density fibreboard (6.3 mm and 9.5 mm). All panels were fabricated to the same final sandwich thickness of 45 mm using cell size of 12.7 mm Kraft paper honeycomb. The results of the experiment show that the strongest facing material used to make the sandwich panels was the 3.2 mm hardboard with wood veneer lamination on both sides running along the long axis of the panel and test specimen, followed by the 6.3 mm MDF and the 9.5 mm MDF. The experiment demonstrated that exposing the panels to high humidity could cause strength loss of up to half of the original strength. However, the result of the experiment also suggested that it would be difficult to accurately predict the long term creep behavior of the sandwich panels using their corresponding short term flexural properties as the correlation between creep deformation and flexural properties was rather weak under the testing procedure and condition used.
CREEP
PANEL BOARDS
CORE
LOADING
HUMIDITY
Abstract
Not available
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Réduction du ponçage à la finition dans les industries du meuble et des armoires de cuisine

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39424
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2012
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2012
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Sanding
Panels
Series Number
Projet no 201004856
E-4773
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
SANDING
Panels - Finishing
Abstract
La préparation à la finition des surfaces profilées de produits d’apparence (ex. contour de porte d’armoire de cuisine) nécessite une attention particulière. La variation de l’orientation des fibres du bois par rapport à la surface du matériau peut résulter en des écarts de couleur lors de la mise en teinte. Les industries du meuble et des armoires de cuisine ont recours à la ponceuse orbitale et au ponçage manuel pour la préparation des surfaces profilées afin d’uniformiser les teintes entre les surfaces planes et les surfaces profilées le long du grain du bois et à contre grain. Toutefois, ces étapes de ponçage s’avèrent coûteuses en temps. Un outil de coupe de nouvelle génération destiné à l’usinage des profils de panneaux a été évalué dans un contexte industriel. Les résultats d’un projet de recherche réalisé antérieurement avaient démontré le potentiel intéressant de ces nouveaux outils pour l’uniformisation des couleurs des profils de panneaux tout en ayant recours à un ponçage limité des surfaces. Toutefois, les essais de préparation à la finition de panneaux en bois d’érable réalisés en usine dans le cadre du présent projet n’ont pas permis de mettre en valeur un niveau de performance du nouvel outil pouvant justifier son utilisation à la place de l’outil conventionnel déjà en place chez notre partenaire industriel, les temps nécessaires au ponçage des profils chez ce partenaire étant déjà très courts, de l’ordre de 60 - 75 secondes par panneau. Plusieurs procédés de préparation à la finition de surfaces profilées de panneaux d’érable et de cerisier ont été évalués dans le cadre du projet, procédés ayant recours à l’outil de coupe de nouvelle génération et à l’outil conventionnel de l’usine pour fin de comparaison. L’outil de nouvelle génération a bien performé, mais non au point de convaincre notre partenaire industriel de procéder à un changement d’outil. Dans le cadre de la seconde partie du projet, le potentiel de traitements au plasma en vue d’éliminer le ponçage manuel des scellants en cours de finition a été évalué. Des traitements au plasma Oxygène-Argon et Oxygène-Azote ont été considérés comparativement au procédé conventionnel de finition de panneaux en bois d’érable. Les deux traitements au plasma réalisés ont révélé la présence de grains soulevés en surface de panneaux. Les résultats démontrent aussi une légère atténuation de la définition du grain du bois suite aux traitements au plasma. Finalement, la brillance a également été affectée par les traitements au plasma, par contre la couleur ne fut pas modifiée.
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Further development of lightweight hollow core sandwich panels for higher requirement applications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39371
Author
Deng, James
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
2009/2011 Further Development of Lightweight Hollow Core Sandwich Panels for Higher Requirement
Author
Deng, James
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
159 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI-150E
E-4711
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A joint research project was carried out under the fund of Value to Wood Program. The project is to further develop the range of possible applications for hollow core panels (HCPs), to construct and test prototypes for more demanding applications and to create optimization tools through the development of finite element models (FEM) for these geometrically complex assemblies for minimized materials content and optimized panel structure. The experimental works that mostly involved with development of alternative low density core materials that can be used for light weight sandwich panels were conducted in FPInnovations Quebec lab while the research team from University of Toronto worked for FEM modeling and the research team from University of British Columbia investigated a range of different applications of the light weight sandwich panels. This report documents the research project done at FPInnovations with detail description of research methodology, results, conclusions and recommendation. It consists six sub-reports: 1. Development of Two-Stage Thermo-Reforming Technology for the Manufacturing of Cup-Shape Fibreboard. Part I. Investigation of Effects of Different Resin Systems and Secondary Hot Pressing on Panel Properties. 2. Development of Two-Stage Thermo-Reforming Technology for the Manufacturing of Cup-Shape Fibreboard. Part II. Manufacture of the Cup-Shape Fibreboard Panels. 3. Low Density Particleboard Made with Speciality Isocyanate and Polyurethane Based Resins. 4. Manufacture of Low Density Particleboard Using Lab Made Polyurethane Based Resin. 5. Effect of Wood Particle Geometry on the Density and Strength of Low Density Particleboard. 6. Development of Low Density Particleboard Using Hemp Shives and MDI Resin.
Hollow core
Composite panels
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Checking in CLT panels : an exploratory study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2772
Author
Casilla, Romulo C.
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Date
December 2011
Edition
39389
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Casilla, Romulo C.
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Date
December 2011
Edition
39389
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
29 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Panels tests
Panels
Laminate product
Building construction
Series Number
Transformative Technologies # TT1.07
W-2877
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH). The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity. Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
Building construction - Laminated
Laminated products
Panels - Tests
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part X. Improvement of fire performance of ceiling tile via fiber treatment with glass fiber, fire retardants and nano-particles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39296
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels Part X: Improvement of Fire Performance
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A laboratorial study was carried out to improve the fire performance of low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile) by incorporating various commercial fire retardants (FR), nano-particles (NP) and glass fiber (GF) into fibers during the mat forming process. Five FR (CROS 349, CROS 481A, CROS 334, Optibor, Polybor), two NP (Nano Al2O3 and Cloisite 25A) and one GF were examined. The ceiling tiles were evaluated for mechanical properties (transverse load at rupture and modulus of rupture) according to CAN/ULC-S706-09 and ASTM C 209-07, and fire performance (flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value and char index) according to ASTM D 3806-98. An element analysis of aluminum (Al) in a ceiling tile made with Nano Al2O3 was performed to evaluate the chemical distribution in fibers. The test result indicated that Nano Al2O3 only penetrated into the top layer of the panel. Based on this result, it was expected that the chemical penetration was likely limited on the top layer when other NP and FR were used. Thus, the procedure employed in this work for incorporating an additive into fibers would not cause any leaking problem which in turn might contaminate the white water and possibly destroy the bacteria used in the cleaning of the water for recycling. Addition of an additive in ceiling tiles showed some negative impact on the transverse load at rupture or modulus of rupture (MOR) of the panels, depending on each individual additive used. The use of FR at 10-15 wt% on dry fiber weight significantly improved the fire performance of ceiling tiles in terms of reduced net flame advance by 81%, 59% and 57% respectively, and lowered panel consumption by 56%, 29% and 40% respectively, as observed for CROS 481A, CROS 349 and CROS 334. FR Polybor also resulted in reduced net flame advance by 46%, but it caused more reduction in board strength than other additives: by 41% for transverse load and 17% for MOR. The insulation values of ceiling tiles were reduced by 20% for NP Cloisite 25A, 10% for Nano Al2O3 and 7% for FR Polybor when these additives were applied at 5 wt% based on the dry fiber weight. Adding GF (10% by weight) or NP Cloisite 25A (5% by weight) in ceiling tiles also lowered the char index by 35%. This study also showed that no additive could perform consistently better than others in terms of both mechanical and fire properties of ceiling tiles. By taking board mechanical properties into account, it can be concluded that three FR (CRSO 349, CROS 481A, CROS 334) showed potential for protecting ceiling tiles against flaming regarding lowered net flame advance and panel consumption. One nano-particle (Cloisite 25A) also showed potential in terms of reduced insulation value and char index.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IV. Fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39290
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels Part IV: Improvement of Fire Performance
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve the flame resistance of oriented strand board (OSB) and low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile), a laboratorial study was carried out to coat the commercial OSB panel and ceiling tile with three commercial fire retardant coatings (WT-102, Safe-T-Guard®, RUFR-1000) and ceiling tile with nanoclay 1130E-modified commercial coating/paint. The commercial coating and paint without fire retardants were designed for ceiling tile application. The test results indicated that the 2 wt% nanoclay-modified coating and/or paint could effectively improve the flame resistance of ceiling tile in terms of the short after-flame time according to ASTM D 3801 and the high limited oxygen index (LOI) according to ASTM D 2863. The nanoclay-modified coating and/or paint performed similarly to Safe-T-Guard® regarding both after-flame time and limited oxygen index. In general, the OSB panel coated with RUFR-1000 performed better than those with WT-102 and Safe-T-Guard® in terms of lowered panel consumption, net flame advance, insulation value and char index according to ASTM D 3806. An increase in fire retardant coating rate improved the fire performance of OSB for all three commercial fire retardant coatings. Full title: Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IV. Improvement of fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile via surface coating with commercial fire retardant coatings for OSB and ceiling tile and nanoclay-modified coating/paint for ceiling tile
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part V. Improvement of fire performance of ceiling tile via surface coating with commercial fire retardant coatings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39291
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels Part V: Improvement of Fire Performance
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve the flame resistance of low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile), a laboratorial study was carried out to coat the commercial ceiling tile with three commercial fire retardant coatings (WT-102, Safe-T-Guard®, RUFR-1000). In general, the surface coating of low-density ceiling tile with the three fire retardant coatings effectively improved the fire performance of the board. The ceiling tile coated with RUFR-1000 performed better than those with WT-102 and Safe-T-Guard® in terms of reduced panel consumption, net flame advance, insulation value, and char index according to ASTM D 3806.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
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94 records – page 1 of 10.