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An accelerated decay test of needle- and conventionally-incised CCA-treated white spruce and lodgepole pine

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4398
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 1998
Edition
41176
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Introduction White spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) and lodgepole pine {Pinus contorta Dougl
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 1998
Edition
41176
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Series Number
W-1510
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated needle-incised white spruce and lodgepole pine heartwood with end-matched conventionally-incised material. Short lengths of 2 x 4 and comparable untreated material were installed in a warmed soil bed in the open air. After 12 years of accelerated exposure (equivalent to 15 years' natural exposure), all the treated material - spruce and lodgepole pine, needle and conventionally incised - was almost completely sound with minor patches of surface decay. In contrast, both the untreated spruce and the untreated lodgepole pine heartwood had failed due to decay. The performance of needle-incised and conventionally-incised lumber has been very similar in both species.
Preservation - Incising - Tests
Picea - Preservation
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
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Biological control of stain in logs : a compilation of research reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4483
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
May 2002
Edition
41267
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
and pigmentation of deep and surface colonising sapstaining fungi in Pinus contorta. Holzforschung 55:340-346
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
May 2002
Edition
41267
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Storage
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Logs
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service Value-Added Report;2444
W-1880
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Development of bluestain in logs prevents the Canadian forest industry from producing maximum-value products from a considerable portion of the resource every year. The major purpose of this project was to determine the practical and economic feasibility of using an albino stain of a common bluestain fungus Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97, recently renamed Sylvanex) or equivalent albino fungi to control sapstain in lodgepole pine logs. We also tested the Forintek's eastern laboratory integrated control technology (fungus Gliocladium roseum with alkali). Different activities were planned but as results developed some had to be modified or dropped and others added to the planned work. The various aspects of this work are described in the set of reports that are included in the appendices.
Stains - Fungal - Control - Tests
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains - Fungal
Logs - Storage
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Biological protection of sawlogs against bluestain : CFS value added research program progress report to March 31, 2000

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4441
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
April 2000
Edition
41224
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2000
Edition
41224
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
3 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Series Number
W-1689
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using C97 (Cartapip 97), or an equivalent albino fungi, to control sapstain in lodgepole pine logs.
Stains - Fungal - Control
Pinus contorta Dougl. var latifolia - Stains - Fungal
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Bondability of beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the manufacture of wood composite products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5605
Author
Feng, Martin
He, G.
Date
January 2006
Edition
37778
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Feng, Martin
He, G.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
January 2006
Edition
37778
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Utilization
Recovery
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insect killed
Series Number
5156
W-2253
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
To maximize value recovery from post mountain pine beetle - wood (MPB wood) for the manufacture of wood composite products, it is desirable to use completely MPB wood as OSB, MDF or particleboard furnish. The objective of this study in the first fiscal year was to determine and quantify the chemical properties, bondability and wettability of grey stage MPB wood in order to minimize or reduce the impact of beetle-killed wood on composite panel manufacturing. Investigation of the chemical and physical properties of grey stage MPB wood, such as wood pH and buffer capacity, wettability and bondability was conducted. Green lodgepole pine and aspen were used to compare the test results. Various wood furnish derived from MPB wood and green lodgepole pine have been prepared for the manufacturing testing of OSB, MDF and particleboard panels in the next fiscal year. The test results indicated that some basic chemical and physical properties of lodgepole pine, particularly in the sapwood area, had undergone changes associated with MPB infestation. Based on the test results so far, the following conclusions are made: 1. The pH values of both the MPB heartwood and sapwood were lower and their acid and base buffer capacities were higher than those of the green lodgepole pine. As a result, the curing rate of pH sensitive adhesives such as UF and MUF may be affected. 2. MPB sapwood showed extremely fast and high water absorption but its thickness swell was lower than those of the MPB heartwood, green pine sapwood and heartwood regardless of water temperatures. 3. Thickness swell of the MPB sapwood almost reached to the maximum in the first two hours of water soaking at 20°C. 4. The water absorption of sapwood was higher but the thickness swell was lower than that of heartwood in both MPB wood and green lodgepole pine. The rates of water absorption and thickness swell of these woods were fast in the first several hours and slowed down thereafter. 5. Both the MPB heartwood and the green pine heartwood behaved very similarly in terms of water absorption rate and percentages. It appeared that the beetle infestation did not significantly affect the water absorption property of the MPB heartwood. 6. Edge thickness swell and center thickness swell of the MPB sapwood behaved very similarly in terms of the rates and percentages, which were quite different from those of the other woods and suggest that the blue stained MPB sapwood had probably undergone profound changes. 7. Higher temperatures led to faster and more water absorption. The water temperature affected the MPB sapwood more than the MPB heartwood. 8. Thickness swell reached to the equilibrium faster at higher temperatures. 9. Water pH had little influence on water absorption but affected thickness swell. The thickness swell of both MPB wood and lodgepole pine decreased under both acidic and alkaline conditions. 10. The bonding strength of MPB and green lodgepole pine with liquid PF, powdered PF and liquid UF were generally comparable to that of aspen at high press temperatures. Both the MPB wood and green pine showed lower bonding strength than aspen at low press temperatures. This may have significant implications on the bonding quality of the core layer of panels. 11. At high temperature (200°C), green pine produced substantially higher MDI bonding strength while MPB wood and aspen gave lower and similar bonding strength. This was also the case at low press temperature (140ºC), particularly in longer press time. The MDI bonding strength of MPB wood was close to that of aspen under all these press time and temperature conditions. However, aspen appeared to be less sensitive to low press temperature in terms of bonding with MDI. Therefore, green lodgepole pine may be more suitable as a core furnish material than the MPB wood in the manufacture of OSB, where MDI resin is widely used as a core layer adhesive. Grey stage MPB wood may be more suitable as an OSB face furnish material. This hypothesis will be carefully tested in the 2nd fiscal year of this project.
Insect killed wood - Utilization
Insect-killed wood - Recovery
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - North America
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Characterising the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1219
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Permeability
Penetration
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1985
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists have previously observed that bluestained wood appears to have different dimensional stability characteristics than non-stained wood when subjected to repeated wetting and drying. Bluestained wood has also been reported to show increased permeability, which may make treatment with liquids such as wood preservatives easier. However, no data is available on how bluestained wood resulting from the beetle attack might affect. We therefore identified the need to generate data on the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability characteristics of bluestained wood compared with non-stained wood. To examine dimensional stability, specimens of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lumber were subjected to wetting/drying cycles. After 5 and 10 cycles, the amount of bow, crook, cupping, twist, and checking was measured. The permeability of the wood was also determined by weighing end-matched specimens before and after a 1-, 4-, and 24-hour dip or after a pressure treatment cycle with chromated copper arsenate preservative, and then calculating the uptake and preservative retention. The results clearly show that when repeatedly wetted and dried, such as occurs in exterior end uses, bluestained beetle-killed wood is more dimensionally stable (less cupping and twist) and checks less than non-stained sapwood, but is more permeable to water. The stresses appear to be relieved by many micro-checks rather than fewer large checks. Overall, the improved dimensional stability should result in the lumber made from stained wood remaining straighter. Increased permeability of the bluestained wood was confirmed by data showing enhanced chromated copper arsenate (CCA) uptake and penetration. One implication of the stained sapwood treating more readily than non-stained wood is that in batches of preservative-treated wood, the stained wood is liable to be overtreated or the non-stained wood undertreated. As anticipated, bluestain in the sapwood had no effect on the penetration of preservative into the heartwood, the most refractory part of the wood. Treatment with CCA also masked the bluestain by coloring it green. The increased permeability probably also has implications for ease of air or kiln drying and possibly reduced degrade in the kiln.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Defects
Preservatives - Permeability
Preservatives - Penetration
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Defects
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Characterising the gluing and finishing properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1220
Author
Williams, D.
Mucha, E.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37667
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Williams, D.
Mucha, E.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37667
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Laminate product
Insects
Glue
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1986
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. It is reported that bluestained wood has shown increased permeability, and questions arose as to whether the application of an adhesive or a finish coating may be adversely affected. Laminating of wood is a key value-added process and one that is very dependent on the quality of the bond between two or more components. Bluestain is a common phenomenon in the secondary wood processing industry where finishing is part of the value-adding process. The finishing evaluations made in this study were intended to benefit these processors. Pieces of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lodgepole pine lumber were dried to a moisture content typically targeted by the furniture sector — i.e., much drier than lumber used for structural purposes. From this lumber, specially constructed edge-glued panels were made which exhibited bluestained to bluestained joints and non-stained to non-stained joints. This construction method provides bluestained and non-stained joints for the laminating tests, as well as providing a good representation of what will really happen in an industrial setting where bluestain most likely will not be separated from non-stain. Each panel was cut in half, with one half being used for the laminating tests and the other half for the finishing evaluations. The strength and durability of the glue lines were measured. Various finish coatings either used alone or in combinations with others were subjectively evaluated. The laminating tests show that gluelines in lodgepole pine that contains beetle-transmitted bluestain were not significantly different in strength from gluelines in unstained wood when PVA and PRF adhesives are used. The durability of the bluestained beetle-killed wood gluelines easily met the requirements specified by the ASTM D1101 standard. Where desired, the appearance of bluestained wood can be enhanced or highlighted by a simple standard clear furniture finish. Bluestain in parts of edge-glued panels can be masked if certain types of finishes are employed. The finishes that gave more consistently good masking results were those containing blue, red, and charcoal tints in the stain, toner, or glaze coatings. Increased permeability of the bluestain did not affect the adherence of any of the finishes. While the finishing evaluations indicate the possibilities for finishing pine, whether it has bluestain or not, market research is recommended, using the best performing finishes on full-scale furniture pieces, to test consumer acceptance.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Board products - Finishing
Laminated products - Finishing
Glue line
Documents
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Characterising the mechanical properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1218
Author
Lum, Conroy
Date
August 2003
Edition
37665
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Lum, Conroy
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37665
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Mechanical properties
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1984
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. To determine whether this bluestained lumber differs in its strength properties from non-stained lumber, small clear wood tests and a test on a truss connector were conducted. Fourteen mills were approached and asked to provide an equal number of samples of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lumber. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained and non-stained samples were collected and delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. Small clear bending and toughness test specimens, meeting the general requirements of the standard test method ASTM D143, were prepared from an equal number of bluestained and non-stained lumber pieces. A subset of the bluestained and non-stained lumber sample was also selected and used to prepare metal plate-connected tension splice specimens. The three tests and the measured mechanical properties were judged to be sensitive indicators of any possible effects of bluestain on the structural performance of full-size lumber. For bluestain, an impact on the clear wood strength or the strength of the connector could be considered a precursor to a possible reduction in the structural performance of full-size lumber. Direct tests on full-size lumber tend to be confounded by the presence of strength-reducing growth characteristics such as knots or slope of grain, and are therefore more suited for quantifying a particular effect once it has been confirmed to exist. The following results were found:
Wood with beetle-transmitted bluestain and non-stained wood have comparable clear wood bending properties and truss plate grip capacity.
The observed lower mean toughness of bluestained wood compared to non-stained wood was found to be only marginally significant (p = 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference at toughness levels below the lower quartile of the strength distribution.
The small differences that appear to be associated with bluestain (5% decrease in mean toughness, and 5% increase in mean truss plate connector grip capacity) are more likely to be masked by differences in the mechanical properties of the heartwood and sapwood, and, in the case of full-size lumber, by the presence of strength-reducing growth characteristics such as knots and slope of grain.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Mechanical properties
Documents
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4505
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
January 2004
Edition
41292
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
January 2004
Edition
41292
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
British Columbia
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
W-2007
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report provides the methods and summarizes the results of Forintek research to characterize the properties of British Columbia lumber containing beetle-transmitted bluestain. In 2003 Forintek Canada Corp. collected approximately 30 pieces of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and an equivalent amount of non-bluestained lumber from each of 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. The geographic range of beetle attack was represented in the sampling plan. The wood was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. This research represents the first comprehensive study and compilation of the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part A

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4497
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Edition
41284
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
41284
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
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Characterising the properties of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain : background, material collection, and summary of findings : Part B

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42919
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1975
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The extensive outbreak of mountain pine beetle in north central British Columbia is resulting in a large volume of lodgepole pine coming into the log supply for sawmills. The major defining characteristic of beetle-infested trees is the bluestained sapwood caused by fungi carried by the beetle. Because bluestained wood is not very familiar to some consumers, this wood may pose a marketing challenge. Although the non-appearance properties of bluestained wood are widely recognised by the industry as not being compromised, there are no data to support this belief. The literature on other types of bluestained wood reports up to 30% lower impact bending strength (toughness) and higher permeability than for non-bluestained wood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists identified the need to generate data on some properties of beetle-killed wood in order to address potential concerns. Approximately 270 pieces each of bluestained lodgepole pine lumber cut from beetle-attacked trees, and equivalent non-bluestained lumber were collected from 14 different sawmills in the B.C. Interior. This was delivered to the Forintek Vancouver laboratory for conditioning and processing into test specimens. The specimens were allocated, in equal proportion from each mill, between tests of mechanical, dimensional stability/permeability, gluing, and finishing properties. The results are presented here and in three associated reports. This is the first compilation of work on the properties of beetle-transmitted bluestained wood. Overall, the research indicates that this wood can be used, without compromising performance, for structural, furniture, and preservative-treated end uses. A factsheet summarizing the findings produced for customers of bluestained wood is included in the appendix to this report.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia
Documents
Less detail

48 records – page 1 of 5.