This study is a preliminary investigation of market demand for Western Canadian aspen in three major market places, the United States, Japan and Western Europe. As a preliminary investigation, there was no attempt to statistically characterize specifier populations. Rather, through consultations with industry, combined with the author's personal experiences, potential specifiers were identified and selectively interviewed. This process included aspen lumber/boards at various grades, edge-glued panels, veneer, plywood, and laminated veneer lumber. Both structural and non-structural applications were considered.
This publication characterizes nine commercial tree species of Alberta. Included are descriptions of the range and volume of each species, their wood properties, and present and potential manufacturing uses.
In 1989, four single-stem, vegetation-control methods were used on trembling aspen overstory on two study sites, at Prince George and Kelowna North British Columbia. The study compared cost and productivity of four treatments: hack-and squirt, gel cap, EZJect, and girdling. The study also established permanent sample plots and collected baseline data for monitoring the efficacy of treatments and the effect of the treatments on understory plant communities. The project was funded by the federal direct delivery component of the Canada/BC Forest Resource Development Agreement (FRDA).
The objective of this project was to determine the most effective, environmentally friendly treatments which will protect value-added lumber produced from Alberta wood species from fungal discoloration. This report presents information on selected sapstain control products and the efficacy results after a four-month storage period.
A field test under natural weathering conditions of pine, spruce, and aspen shakes, both untreated and treated with CCA-C, was established in 1995 at Vancouver, BC. Untreated western red cedar shakes were included as reference material. The shakes were inspected for decay and dimensional stability after five years of exposure. The CCA-treated samples were free of fungal attack and decay of the untreated wood was limited. In terms of splitting, untreated western red cedar was superior to the other species. Pine, both untreated and CCA-treated, was less split than spruce and aspen. CCA-treated spruce was more split than untreated, but splitting was not affected by CCA treatment in pine and aspen. In terms of erosion, untreated pine and spruce were equivalent to western red cedar while aspen was more eroded. CCA treatment reduced erosion of the shakes surface in the three species compared to untreated samples. In terms of cupping, untreated pine was equal to cedar while spruce and aspen were more cupped than pine and cedar. CCA treatment did not affect the degree of cupping.
This study was designed to develop long-term performance data on untreated and CCA-treated northern pine shakes in areas with low and moderate above ground decay hazard and to determine whether spruce and aspen shakes would provide comparable performance to that of pine shakes. Western red cedar shakes were included as a reference material. This report describes the set-up of the field tests and results after five days of exposure.
The recent emphasis on producing higher value secondary wood products in British Columbia requires some changes in the way manufacturers process wood. A basic requirement in assessing whether a wood species is suitable for use as a value-added product is an understanding of the wood's machining characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the planing, turning, shaping, boring, mortising, sanding, and fastening characteristics in clear wood sections for 15 B.C. softwood and hardwood species:
1. Amabilis Fir, 2. Douglas fir, 3. Lodgepole pine, 4. Sitka spruce, 5. Subalpine fir, 6. Western hemlock, 7. Western larch, 8. Western redcedar, 9. Western white pine, 10. Western white spruce, 11. Yellow cedar, 12. Black cottonwood, 13. Red alder, 14. Trembling aspen, 15. Western white birch.
This information will aid B.C. secondary wood processors in the design and manufacture of higher value products, and help promote B.C. species and products in domestic and export markets. The study compares the machining properties of individual species within B.C.'s SPF and hem-fir groups demonstrating the benefits of sorting by individual species. In addition, the machining properties of B.C.'s under-utilized species (e.g., trembling aspen, black cottonwood) are compared to those of well established softwood species (e.g., Douglas-fir, western hemlock). Finally, the study determined the average force necessary to withdraw two types of fasteners (nail and screw) from each of the wood species. A tabular presentation of the results is included for easy comparison between species.
Mechanical properties - Machining
British Columbia woods - Utilization
Abies amabilis - Mechanical properties
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Mechanical properties
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Mechanical properties
Seven B.C. species, namely, interior Douglas fir, coastal second growth Douglas fir, western larch, lodgepole pine, western white spruce, trembling aspen and white birch were evaluated for their laminating properties using different adhesive formulations and pressing conditions.
Using optimized gluing and pressing conditions, six of the B.C. species showed excellent bond quality when laminating with radio-frequency (RF) heating and either cross-linked polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) or phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) adhesive. These laminates easily passed the shear block wood failure requirement in the ASTM-D-2559 standard and the delamination requirement in the ASTM-D-1101 standard. Because white birch which has a high density showed the highest block shear strengths for the optimum PRF adhesive formulation, this species showed the lowest average percent wood failure of the seven B.C. species and did not meet the ASTM-D-2559 wood failure requirement of 75%.
Using conventional platen pressing at 20 or 25°C, laminates were prepared with different PRF adhesive formulations and the seven B.C. species. Using an optimized PRF adhesive formulation, the laminates for the seven BC species met the above ASTM standard requirements for wood failure and delamination.
Overall, the percent wood failure was higher for the laminates made at 25°C indicating more resin cure. Hence, for laminates made with the optimum PRF formulation, PRF-C, the average percent wood failure for western larch at 20°C was 78% compared to 98% at 25°C.
Laminated products - Manufacture - British Columbia