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42 records – page 1 of 5.

An accelerated decay test of needle- and conventionally-incised CCA-treated white spruce and lodgepole pine

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4398
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 1998
Edition
41176
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 1998
Edition
41176
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Series Number
W-1510
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated needle-incised white spruce and lodgepole pine heartwood with end-matched conventionally-incised material. Short lengths of 2 x 4 and comparable untreated material were installed in a warmed soil bed in the open air. After 12 years of accelerated exposure (equivalent to 15 years' natural exposure), all the treated material - spruce and lodgepole pine, needle and conventionally incised - was almost completely sound with minor patches of surface decay. In contrast, both the untreated spruce and the untreated lodgepole pine heartwood had failed due to decay. The performance of needle-incised and conventionally-incised lumber has been very similar in both species.
Preservation - Incising - Tests
Picea - Preservation
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
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Case study : CCA treated posts after 4.5 years service

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4484
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2000
Edition
41269
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2000
Edition
41269
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Posts
Posts preservation
Series Number
W-1888
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In southwestern B.C., CCA-treated wood is being increasingly used for balcony support posts. However, these are not required to meet CSA standards. After only 4.5 years in service there were signs of decay in 105 mm square CCA-treated posts removed from one Vancouver condominium complex. Three of these posts with particularly low preservative retention and penetration were severely decayed. Four more were slightly damaged by decay. Overall, the posts would not have met the penetration and retention requirements in CSA standards and were put into a critical application in a high hazard environment in contact with untreated wood. The size and the preservative retention suggest that this was material treated for the Japanese market that failed to meet the penetration or grading requirements of the JAS standard and was therefore sold locally. There is a wealth of evidence to show that material meeting CSA standards can meet or exceed service life expectations. However, confidence in the performance of treated wood can easily be damaged by the poor performance of substandard material. Unfortunately, there is currently no requirement for treated wood used in buildings to have third-party assurance of standards conformance.
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Posts - Preservation
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Characterising the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1219
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Permeability
Penetration
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1985
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists have previously observed that bluestained wood appears to have different dimensional stability characteristics than non-stained wood when subjected to repeated wetting and drying. Bluestained wood has also been reported to show increased permeability, which may make treatment with liquids such as wood preservatives easier. However, no data is available on how bluestained wood resulting from the beetle attack might affect. We therefore identified the need to generate data on the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability characteristics of bluestained wood compared with non-stained wood. To examine dimensional stability, specimens of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lumber were subjected to wetting/drying cycles. After 5 and 10 cycles, the amount of bow, crook, cupping, twist, and checking was measured. The permeability of the wood was also determined by weighing end-matched specimens before and after a 1-, 4-, and 24-hour dip or after a pressure treatment cycle with chromated copper arsenate preservative, and then calculating the uptake and preservative retention. The results clearly show that when repeatedly wetted and dried, such as occurs in exterior end uses, bluestained beetle-killed wood is more dimensionally stable (less cupping and twist) and checks less than non-stained sapwood, but is more permeable to water. The stresses appear to be relieved by many micro-checks rather than fewer large checks. Overall, the improved dimensional stability should result in the lumber made from stained wood remaining straighter. Increased permeability of the bluestained wood was confirmed by data showing enhanced chromated copper arsenate (CCA) uptake and penetration. One implication of the stained sapwood treating more readily than non-stained wood is that in batches of preservative-treated wood, the stained wood is liable to be overtreated or the non-stained wood undertreated. As anticipated, bluestain in the sapwood had no effect on the penetration of preservative into the heartwood, the most refractory part of the wood. Treatment with CCA also masked the bluestain by coloring it green. The increased permeability probably also has implications for ease of air or kiln drying and possibly reduced degrade in the kiln.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Defects
Preservatives - Permeability
Preservatives - Penetration
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Defects
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Comparison of variable, constant and fluctuating pressure treating processes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41134
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Pressure
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Penetration
Balsam
Fir
Series Number
1743A231
W-1284
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report evaluates a new fluctuating pressure treating process, with a small pressure variation, that could be easily implemented into a treating plant with a control value. Coastal western hemlock being a relatively difficult species to impregnate was chosen as a suitable test species. Incised and unincised hemlock was used to relate to present industry practices.
Preservatives - Penetration
Preservation - Pressure processes
Tsuga heterophylla - Preservation
Abies amabilis - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
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Compilation of reports. 1. Performance of treated lumber against termites after 11 years of test in Ontario. 2. Performance of borate-treated wood against subterranean termites under above-ground protected conditions in Canada

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41238
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Termites
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Ammonia
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 14;1054
W-1747
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
North American subterranean termites have become a major factor limiting the service life of wood products in southwestern Ontario. If preservative treatment can be demonstrated to prevent termite attack, the market for wood products could be maintained and expanded. With the assistance of the town of Kincardine, Ontario, Forintek set up a ground-contact termite test site in 1988. The material used included red pine, lodgepole pine, jack pine, hemlock, white spruce and mixed spruce-pine-fir. The preservatives were chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ). Both incised and unincised lumber was included in the tests where possible. Also used was CCA-treated hem-fir plywood. The material was inspected in the summer of 1999. Treated material was generally performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial surface feeding, or cosmetic damage. Some samples that had lower assay retentions and preservative penetrations showed more than just trace nibbles and termites appeared to have actually penetrated through the outer treated zone. It appeared that termite entry occurred in areas on the wood surface where defects may have facilitated such entry. Material that came close to meeting CSA O80 standards for ground contact generally suffered only minor damage. Forintek expanded the test in 1996 to include borate-treated material above-ground, protected from rain. This method simulates the sillplate, or dodai, used in traditional Japanese housing construction. The material included hemlock and amabilis fir lumber treated with borate and chromated copper arsenate (CCA). When it was inspected in the autumn of 2000, the treated material was generally found to be performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial feeding or cosmetic damage. Attack was moderate on untreated controls.
Termites - Control
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Preservatives - Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT)
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Dimensional stability of amabilis fir and western hemlock decking

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41147
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
October 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
October 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Balsam
Fir
Series Number
W-1333
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A field test of simulated decking under natural weathering conditions was established to compare the dimensional stability in service of amabilis fir (Pacific silver fir) and western hemlock. After 30 months of exposure, incised and CCA-treated amabilis fir outperformed western hemlock in terms of bow, crook, and cross-checking associated with compression wood.
Decking
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservation - Incising
Tsuga heterophylla - Preservation
Abies amabilis - Preservation
Documents
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Durability of treated commodities : a compilation of reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41198
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja plicata
Termites
Softwoods
Shingles preservation
Shingles durability
Shingles
Preservatives tests
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Preservation
Posts
Posts preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Penetration
Joints
Ammonia
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 14
Project No. 1054
W-1591
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In the 3-year rotation of subject matter for the reports of the "Durability of Wood" project, attention has again turned to treated commodities. In these tests, we evaluate not only the efficacy of the wood preservative, but also the effect on performance of the quality of treatment that can be achieved with Canadian wood species. The collection of long-term performance data takes time and it is impossible to predict questions about standards for which answers will be needed in 10 or 20 years' time. Consequently, Forintek has maintained a comprehensive field-testing program covering a wide range of commodities, wood species, preservatives and treatment methods. The reports in this compilation cover decking, finger-jointed lumber above ground, shakes, millwork, fence posts, lumber in a termite area and needle-incised lumber in an accelerated ground contact test.
Softwoods - Preservatives
Glued joints - Finger - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Penetration
Preservation - Durability
Decking - Preservation
Shingles - Preservation
Thuja plicata - Shingles
Shingles - Durability
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Posts - Preservation
Preservation - Incising - Tests
Picea - Preservation
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Tests
Termites - Control
Documents
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Effect of commercial natural finishes on dislodgeable arsenic on CCA-treated wood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41299
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
April 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
April 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Series Number
W-2061
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A range of commercially available natural finish products were exposed to natural weathering at test sites in Vancouver, B.C. and Gulfport, Mississippi. One of the pre-treatments evaluated under these finishes was chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treatment. After 28 months in test, the finishes over CCA-treated wood were subjected to a wipe test to assess their ability to seal in arsenic. Film-forming finishes provided a good barrier against leaching, while penetrating stains were less effective, although all finishes reduced dislodgeable arsenic compared to unfinished CCA-treated wood.
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Tests
Finishes - Exterior - Tests
Documents
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Evaluation of selected wood preservatives by the standard stake test

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41034
Author
Ruddick, J.N.R.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ruddick, J.N.R.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Ammonia
Series Number
CFS No. 6;02-17-10-051
W-472
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Preservatives - Tests, Stake
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Documents
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Field performance of commercial natural finishes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41295
Author
Morris, Paul I.
McFarling, S.M.
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
McFarling, S.M.
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
48 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 35;3226
W-2053
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Development of a natural finish with long-term performance should assist wood products to maintain market share in residential applications in the face of substitute materials and potentially expand markets in recreational property and non-residential applications. A range of commercially available products, reputed to be among the best in their class, were exposed for two years accelerated natural weathering facing south at 45o at test sites in Vancouver, BC and Gulfport, Mississippi, the latter in collaboration with the USDA Forest Products Laboratory. A range of pre-treatments were evaluated under these finishes including sanding, “mill glaze” treatment, chromated copper arsenate treatment and several zinc-containing formulations expected to provide some protection against UV and mold/stain. The test material was inspected every six months for discolouration, mold/stain, finish water repellency, flaking, erosion and cracking and substrate condition. Two variants of a water-based film forming finish stood out among the products tested after only one-year and showed little or no deterioration (with the right surface preparation) after two years exposure in Mississippi. With regard to the pre-treatments, sanding doubled the time to refinishing for the water-based film forming finish but had no effect on a solvent-based film forming finish. “mill glaze” treatment increased the refinishing interval, but was not as effective as sanding. Chromated copper arsenate pre-treatment doubled the life of the solvent based film forming finish but did not affect the water-based film forming finish. Zinc naphthenate pre-treatments negatively affected finish performance and zinc acetate provided no improvement in performance. The Mississippi test site provided a factor of acceleration of about 1.3 for film forming natural finishes compared to the Vancouver test site. Based on this acceleration factor, the water based film-forming finish F5 over sanded wood would be anticipated to give a life of at least 4 years without refinishing in high-end applications under Canadian conditions. All the other products tested required refinishing after 1 year or less in Vancouver.
Finishes - Exterior - Tests
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Documents
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42 records – page 1 of 5.