Les forêts de feuillus tolérants fournissent une vaste gamme de produits, notamment des billes dont la valeur varie de 45 à 1700 $/m3. L'utilisaton de modèles de production convenant aux produits de commodité ne maximise pas la valeur qu'on peut tirer de ce type de forêt.
The objective of this project was to quantify the lumber value recovery up-lift that is achievable by adding surface defect detection to board profile scanning in sawmill edger optimization. Optimized profile edging solutions of 194 spruce-pine-fir sample boards were compared to optimized edging solutions that took into account surface defects as well as the geometric shape of the board. The edger optimization improvement was found to be marginal. Data analysis showed a benefit of only $0.13 per m3 of processed logs, an equivalent of $237.11 per shift. The findings of this report are mill specific. The value recovery figures were collected in a mill with given log supply, machinery and market orientation. A more significant up-lift in value recovery would likely be obtained for higher valued products produced from larger logs typically processed in coastal sawmills.
To maximize value recovery from post mountain pine beetle - wood (MPB wood) for the manufacture of wood composite products, it is desirable to use completely MPB wood as OSB, MDF or particleboard furnish. The objective of this study in the first fiscal year was to determine and quantify the chemical properties, bondability and wettability of grey stage MPB wood in order to minimize or reduce the impact of beetle-killed wood on composite panel manufacturing. Investigation of the chemical and physical properties of grey stage MPB wood, such as wood pH and buffer capacity, wettability and bondability was conducted. Green lodgepole pine and aspen were used to compare the test results. Various wood furnish derived from MPB wood and green lodgepole pine have been prepared for the manufacturing testing of OSB, MDF and particleboard panels in the next fiscal year. The test results indicated that some basic chemical and physical properties of lodgepole pine, particularly in the sapwood area, had undergone changes associated with MPB infestation.
Based on the test results so far, the following conclusions are made:
1. The pH values of both the MPB heartwood and sapwood were lower and their acid and base buffer capacities were higher than those of the green lodgepole pine. As a result, the curing rate of pH sensitive adhesives such as UF and MUF may be affected.
2. MPB sapwood showed extremely fast and high water absorption but its thickness swell was lower than those of the MPB heartwood, green pine sapwood and heartwood regardless of water temperatures.
3. Thickness swell of the MPB sapwood almost reached to the maximum in the first two hours of water soaking at 20°C.
4. The water absorption of sapwood was higher but the thickness swell was lower than that of heartwood in both MPB wood and green lodgepole pine. The rates of water absorption and thickness swell of these woods were fast in the first several hours and slowed down thereafter.
5. Both the MPB heartwood and the green pine heartwood behaved very similarly in terms of water absorption rate and percentages. It appeared that the beetle infestation did not significantly affect the water absorption property of the MPB heartwood.
6. Edge thickness swell and center thickness swell of the MPB sapwood behaved very similarly in terms of the rates and percentages, which were quite different from those of the other woods and suggest that the blue stained MPB sapwood had probably undergone profound changes.
7. Higher temperatures led to faster and more water absorption. The water temperature affected the MPB sapwood more than the MPB heartwood.
8. Thickness swell reached to the equilibrium faster at higher temperatures.
9. Water pH had little influence on water absorption but affected thickness swell. The thickness swell of both MPB wood and lodgepole pine decreased under both acidic and alkaline conditions.
10. The bonding strength of MPB and green lodgepole pine with liquid PF, powdered PF and liquid UF were generally comparable to that of aspen at high press temperatures. Both the MPB wood and green pine showed lower bonding strength than aspen at low press temperatures. This may have significant implications on the bonding quality of the core layer of panels.
11. At high temperature (200°C), green pine produced substantially higher MDI bonding strength while MPB wood and aspen gave lower and similar bonding strength. This was also the case at low press temperature (140ºC), particularly in longer press time. The MDI bonding strength of MPB wood was close to that of aspen under all these press time and temperature conditions. However, aspen appeared to be less sensitive to low press temperature in terms of bonding with MDI. Therefore, green lodgepole pine may be more suitable as a core furnish material than the MPB wood in the manufacture of OSB, where MDI resin is widely used as a core layer adhesive. Grey stage MPB wood may be more suitable as an OSB face furnish material. This hypothesis will be carefully tested in the 2nd fiscal year of this project.
Insect killed wood - Utilization
Insect-killed wood - Recovery
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - North America
This project presents the results of a computer simulation of the recovery obtained from six bucking optimization systems equipped with different scanner and conveyor combinations.
Forty sample stems were scanned and stem models developed to provide input for Forintek’s sawing simulation program, OPTITEK®. Input files of both sawmill machinery and their products were developed based upon the operation of a typical sawmill in the Interior of B.C. Optimized bucking solutions were generated, and sample stems were sawn accordingly. Lumber value and volume recovery data were obtained and enabled a performance evaluation of the six bucking optimization systems.
In this project the affect of both the log conveying system and the type of scanner was considered. Both lineal and transverse conveyor systems were studied and the effects of true shape, partial true shape and XY scanners were modelled. Various combinations of parameters were studied and the annual dollar production for such combinations were computed.
Recommendations are made relating to the different systems studied and how the results may be of benefit to mill optimization.
The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) evaluated wood chip recovery and productivity at Weyerhaeuser Company Limited's pulp mill in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Frozen and unfrozen hardwood and softwood logs were debarked and shipped over a range of butt diameters and lengths. This report summarizes the chip recovery, quality, and productivity, and provides recommendations on how the operation and chip recovery can be improved.
The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) evaluated wood chip recovery, quality, and productivity when ring-debarking and chipping deciduous stems over a range of butt diameters in both unfrozen and frozen conditions in northern Alberta.