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Encapsulation of mass timber floor surfaces, report to Forestry Innovation Investment Ltd.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53043
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
55 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood
Fire
Design
Building code
Floors
Fire tests
Residential construction
Language
English
Abstract
Currently, mass timber building designs commonly incorporate a concrete floor topping. This can improve building accoustics by increasing the mass of the assembly, reduce floor vibration and create a smooth flat surface to install finish flooring on. The installation of concrete requires formwork, pouring and finishing the concrete and time to cure which adds to project schedules. One way to address this is to use mass timber elements that are prefabricated with concrete toppings preinstalled. Replaceing the concrete floor toppings wiht dry alternatives, such as cement board, may also reduce construction timelines, while still ensuring adequate acoustic and vibration performance. Cement board needs only to be screwed in place and can be walked on immediately after installation; this reduction in construction time may reduce overall project costs and help make wood buildings more cost competitive than other types of construction.
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Encapsulated mass timber construction: Guidelines for encapsulation details and techniques

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7689
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Geraghty, Simon
Jeske, Judy
Rahmani, Alma
Dorsey, Cheryl
Date
June 2019
Edition
52884
Material Type
manual
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Geraghty, Simon
Jeske, Judy
Rahmani, Alma
Dorsey, Cheryl
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2019
Edition
52884
Material Type
manual
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood
Fire
Building code
Residential construction
Language
English
Abstract
The purpose of this guide is to provide an introduction to the concept of encapsulated mass timber construction. This guide provides an overview of encapsulation techniques for mass timber construction, and other related fire protection measures, and summarizes some approved encapsulation materials and application methods and identifies additional requirements for safety during construction. This guide is intended to help architects, engineers and designers by reducing uncertainty and allowing for more confidence in design, as well as providing authorities having jurisdiction and inspectors with a reference for simple design review.
Funded by Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry through FPInnovations with Morrison Hershfield Limited
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: Mid-rise wood exit shaft demonstration fire test report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49832
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
48 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Fire
Building code
Residential construction
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations conducted a research project to study the construction of mid-rise wood exit shafts in Ontario and Québec. The scope of the project included an investigation into the concerns that have been raised in regards to the use of wood exits in mid-rise buildings, an analysis of recent Canadian fire statistics in residential multi-family structures, and a fire demonstration of a mass timber wall and supported light-frame floor. This report describes the fire demonstration completed as part of this project; this report acts as a supplement to the full project report.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: exit fire separations in mid-rise Wood buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49853
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
91 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Fire
Building code
Residential construction
Language
English
Abstract
In 2015, the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) [1] adopted prescriptive provisions to allow the construction of mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) buildings using combustible construction. These types of buildings were already permitted under the British Columbia Building Code, as of 2009 [2]. In2014 the Province of Ontario filed an amendment to also allow mid-rise wood buildings, however, it required that the exit fire separations be built using noncombustible construction having a fire resistance rating (FRR) of not less than 1.5-hr, which was an increase from the 1-hr requirement in the NBCC. The Québec Construction Code has also filed amendments to allow mid-rise wood construction and also limits exit stairwells to use noncombustible construction.
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Evaluation of prototype wood-based interior partition walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7508
Author
Knudson, Robert M.
Schneider, Johannes
Thomas, Tony
Date
February 2018
Edition
49823
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
SUMMARY Interior partition walls for non-residential and high-rise residential construction are an US$8
Author
Knudson, Robert M.
Schneider, Johannes
Thomas, Tony
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
February 2018
Edition
49823
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Walls
Residential construction
Prototypes
Design
Series Number
Transformative Technology ; TT 2018
Language
English
Abstract
Interior partition walls for non-residential and high-rise residential construction are an US$8 billion market opportunity in Canada and the United States (Crespell and Poon, 2014). They represent 1.6 billion ft² (150 million m²) of wall area where wood currently has less than 10% market share. To approach this market a new system would be needed to compete against the incumbent system (wood/steel stud plus gypsum). The system would need to have an installed cost before finishing of approximately US$5 per ft² or lower. The system would also need to meet several code requirements for strength, sound transmission and fire resistance (flame spread and burn through). Crespell and Poon further concluded that to be truly transformative, the system would also need to address major trends impacting the building industry including reducing labor, reducing skilled labor, reducing onsite waste, reducing call-backs, and easily recyclable with low environmental impact. A likely market entry point for wood-based interior partition systems may be in taller and larger wood buildings. Work described in this report investigated the fabrication, installation, acoustic and combustion properties of prototype interior partition wall designs. Two types of non-structural prototype interior wall panels designated Type A and Type C were installed between two offices in the FPInnovations Vancouver laboratory. Wood sill plates for mounting the prototype panels were fastened to the concrete floor, sides and top of the opening between the two offices to produce a frame for mounting the test panels. Panels were fastened to the frame using dry wall screws. This same method of installation is envisioned in practice. The installation method makes it easy and fast to both install and remove the wall panels. Acoustic tests showed the difference in ASTC rating measured between a double wall composed of Type A and Type C prototype panels compared with a double wood stud wall with gypsum board faces was approximately 6 ASTC points. A 6 point difference would be clearly noticeable. Although the results of this study are largely qualitative, they suggest that the prototype interior partition panels would have an acoustic advantage compared to stud wall designs. In a related study summarized in this report, the combustion properties of three prototype interior panel constructions, including Types A and C evaluated in this report, indicated that any of the three types of partition constructions could be used in combustible construction in accordance with Division B of the National Building Code of Canada. A second related study, also summarized in this report, estimated an installed cost of US$4.07 per ft² including overhead and profit for unfinished panel partitions comparable to panel construction Type C (gypsum/OSB/wood fibre insulation) as evaluated in this study. Thus, there would appear to be potential installed and finished cost advantages for the wood-based panel partitions compared to steel or wood stud walls with gypsum faces. Other potential advantages of the prototype interior partition panels compared with the most common, currently-used systems (wood/steel stud plus gypsum) include ease and speed of installation, ease and speed of removal, design flexibility, prefabrication including pre-finishing, and easy installation of services. Based on the positive results of these exploratory studies, further development of wood-based interior partition systems including design, fabrication, installation and in-service performance would appear justified. Knowledge of the products and testing methods developed in these studies would be expected to speed further development.
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Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : design and detailing solutions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6025
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
42994
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42994
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3075
Language
English
Abstract
Most buildings are designed to accommodate a certain range of movement. In design, it is important for designers to identify locations where potential differential movement could affect structural integrity and serviceability, predict the amount of differential movement and develop proper detailing to accommodate it. To allow non-structural materials to be appropriately constructed, an estimate of anticipated differential movement should be provided in the design drawings. Simply specifying wood materials with lower MC at time of delivery does not guarantee that the wood will not get wet on construction sites and will deliver lower shrinkage amounts as anticipated. It is therefore important to ensure that wood does not experience unexpected wetting during storage, transportation and construction. Good construction sequencing also plays an important role in reducing wetting, the consequent wood shrinkage and other moisture-related issues. Existing documents such as the APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin on 5- and 6-Storey Wood Frame Residential Building Projects, the Best Practice Guide published by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), the Building Enclosure Design Guide –Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings published by the BC Housing- Homeowner Protection Office (HPO) provide general design guidance on how to reduce and accommodate differential movement in platform frame construction.
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Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : basics

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6026
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
42995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3076
Language
English
Abstract
Movement in structures due to environmental condition changes and loads must be considered in design. Temperature changes will cause movement in concrete, steel and masonry structures. For wood materials, movement is primarily related to shrinkage or swelling caused by moisture loss or gain when the moisture content is below 28% (wood fiber saturation point). Other movement in wood structures may also include: settlement (bedding-in movement) due to closing of gaps between members and deformation due to compression loads, including instantaneous elastic deformation and creep. Differential movement can occur where wood frame is connected to rigid components such as masonry cladding, concrete elevator shafts, mechanical services and plumbing, and where mixed wood products such as lumber, timbers, and engineered wood products are used. Evidence from long-term wood frame construction practices shows that for typical light frame construction up to three storeys high, differential movement can be relatively easily accommodated such as through specifying “S-Dry” lumber. However, differential movement over the height of wood-frame buildings becomes a very important consideration for taller buildings due to its cumulative effect. The APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin provides general design guidance and recommends the use of engineered wood products and dimension lumber with 12% moisture content for floor joists to reduce and accommodate differential movement in 5 and 6-storey wood frame buildings. Examples of differential movement concerns and solutions in wood-frame buildings can also be found in the Best Practice Guide published by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the Building Enclosure Design Guide –Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings published by the Homeowner Protection Office of BC Housing. This document illustrates the causes and other basic information related to vertical movement in wood platform frame buildings and recommendations on material handling and construction sequencing to protect wood from rain and reduce the vertical movement.
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Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : movement prediction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6027
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
42996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3077
Language
English
Abstract
It is not possible or practical to precisely predict the vertical movement of wood structures due to the many factors involved in construction. It is, however, possible to obtain a good estimate of the vertical movement to avoid structural, serviceability, and building envelope problems over the life of the structure. Typically “S-Dry” and “S-Grn” lumber will continue to lose moisture during storage, transportation and construction as the wood is kept away from liquid water sources and adapts to different atmospheric conditions. For the purpose of shrinkage prediction, it is usually customary to assume an initial moisture content (MC) of 28% for “S-Green” lumber and 19% for “S-Dry” lumber. “KD” lumber is assumed to have an initial MC of 15% in this series of fact sheets. Different from solid sawn wood products, Engineered Wood Products (EWP) are usually manufactured with MC levels close to or even lower than the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in service. Plywood, Oriented Strand Board (OSB), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) are usually manufactured at MC levels ranging from 6% to 12%. Engineered wood I-joists are made using kiln dried lumber (usually with moisture content below 15%) or structural composite lumber (such as LVL) flanges and plywood or OSB webs, therefore they are usually drier and have lower shrinkage than typical “S-Dry” lumber floor joists. Glued-laminated timbers (Glulam) are manufactured at MC levels from 11% to 15%, so are the recently-developed Cross-laminated Timbers (CLT). For all these products, low shrinkage can be achieved and sometimes small amounts of swelling can be expected in service if their MC at manufacturing is lower than the service EMC. In order to fully benefit from using these dried products including “S-Dry” lumber and EWP products, care must be taken to prevent them from wetting such as by rain during shipment, storage and construction. EWPs may also have lower shrinkage coefficients than solid wood due to the adhesives used during manufacturing and the more mixed grain orientations in the products, including the use of cross-lamination of veneers (plywood) or lumber (CLT). The APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin emphasizes the use of EWP and dimension lumber with 12% moisture content for the critical horizontal members to reduce differential movement in 5 and 6-storey wood frame buildings.
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Diaphragm flexibility

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6028
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Edition
42997
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42997
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Walls
Series Number
W-3078
Language
English
Abstract
Diaphragms are essential to transfer lateral forces in the plane of the diaphragms to supporting shear walls underneath. As the distribution of lateral force to shear walls is dependent on the relative stiffness/flexibility of diaphragm to the shear walls, it is critical to know the stiffness of both diaphragm and shear walls, so that appropriate lateral force applied on shear walls can be assigned. In design, diaphragms can be treated as flexible, rigid or semi-rigid. For a diaphragm that is designated as flexible, the in-plane forces can be assumed to be distributed to the shear walls according to the tributary areas associated with each shear wall. For a diaphragm that is designated as rigid, the loads are assumed to be distributed according to the relative stiffness of the shear walls, with consideration of additional shear force due to torsion for seismic design. In reality, diaphragm is neither purely flexible nor completely rigid, and is more realistically to be treated as semi-rigid. In this case, computer analysis using either plate or diagonal strut elements can be used and the load-deflection properties of the diaphragm will result in force distribution somewhere between the flexible and rigid models. However, alternatively envelope approach which takes the highest forces from rigid and flexible assumptions can be used as a conservative estimation in lieu of computer analysis.
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Design example : wood diaphragm on reinforced CMU shearwalls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6029
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Edition
42998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Walls
Series Number
W-3079
Language
English
Abstract
N/A
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33 records – page 1 of 4.