FERIC studied manual and mechanized felling operations with extraction by cable skidder within the Turkey Lakes Watershed in central Ontario. The study compared manual and mechanized clearcutting and partial-cutting operations (shelterwood and selection cuts) and found that felling and extraction productivities were greatest in clearcutting. However, site disturbance depended as much on how the operation was conducted as on the harvesting system used. From the perspective of riparian-zone management, each cut intensity and harvest system offers different advantages with respect to slash distribution and mineral-soil exposure, and their respective merits must be considered in light of the silvicultural objectives.
Forest managers in western Canada are now treating old forest roads and harvested sites to mitigate environmental concerns. This Compendium has been developed to assist practitioners in western Canada in selecting and implementing restoration measures appropriate to their needs and conditions. Watershed restoration activities, techniques and research trials in western North America are described and contacts for further information are given. Additions to the Compendium will be made on an ongoing basis.
This handbook is a compilation of erosion and sediment control practices aimed at aiding the forest industry, and includes background information to support such practices. These practices are often termed Best Management Practices (BMPs). The handbook will offer guidance for erosion prevention and sediment containment along forest roads where the driving forces are rain and moving water; erosion from wind and mass wasting processes will not be covered.
During early 1994, Western Forest Products Limited, with assistance from the British Columbia Ministry of Forests, tested helicopter and manual methods for topping and pruning trees to create windfirmness in a streamside buffer on northern Vancouver Island. FERIC monitored the trial to document the treatment methods, determine their productivities and costs, and identify key factors which influenced their feasibility and effectiveness. The report describes the results of the trials.
This guide provides guidance for equipment
operators for construction of commonly prescribed
road deactivation structures. Timber sale licence
(TSL) holders and contractors can use this guide as
a reference in achieving conformance to a prepared
FERIC monitored two harvesting operations in riparian zones. Both used cable skidders for tree-length extraction under varying terrain and stand conditions. In both operations, replacing the heavy wire-rope mainline with a lightweight synthetic-fiber rope reduced haul-out weights, thereby letting operators extend their winching corridors deeper into the riparian zone and minimizing the need for machine travel in these zones.
Between 2003 and 2004, FPInnovations, Feric division, evaluated experimental mechanized harvesting in riparian zones. Exceptionally, the machinery used was allowed to operate in these zones but had to be careful not to disturb the soil. Operations were carried out in winter conditions in Quebec’s Saguenay?Lac-Saint-Jean region, with cut-to-length harvesting equipment. The single-grip harvester followed two cutting patterns, the first one with 5-m insertions perpendicular to the shores every 20 m, and the second one with a corridor parallel to and in the middle of the riparian zone. The trials showed that it was possible to operate forest machinery in riparian zones in winter without disturbing the soil. The additional harvesting costs for these two methods ranged from $1.16 to $3.00/m³ compared with costs normally incurred with conventional harvesting with protection of regeneration and soils (HPRS).
During the summer of 1997/98 and 1998/99, Weldwood of Canada Limited Hinton Division conducted partial cutting trials in riparian forests adjacent to the McLoed River near Hinton, Alberta. FERIC monitored the harvesting operations to determine harvesting productivities and costs, and to assess the operational suitability of using mechanized harvesting systems for partial cutting in riparian areas. Ways to improve productivity and decrease residual stand damage are suggested.