FPInnovations partnered with Canfor Vanderhoof and Doug Brophy Contracting Ltd. to install a high-density lodgepole pine direct seeding trial in the spring and fall of 2014. Two blocks were seeded at rates of 20 000 and 40 000 seeds/ha using the Bracke s35.a seeder mounted on a disc trencher. At the end of the 2015 growing season, total stocking was 6 630 and 5 170 st/ha respectively, of which 46% and 57% came from direct seeding. Further natural ingress and delayed germination are expected to increase stocking to target levels.
This report analyzes the costs associated with three direct-seeding systems used in Canada for the regeneration of boreal conifers and compares these costs with those of a container planting system. The study identifies component costs for each system to aid readers in choosing the most cost-effective system, and recommends future research and development directions to provide more economical direct-seeding systems.
The current regeneration challenges posed by salvage logging following large-scale disturbances in western Canada, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle, warrant the need for cost-effective reforestation strategies. Mechanized ground-based direct seeding was assessed in a variety of conditions to explore viability, determine which factors influence success, and determine the expected establishment rate when seeding with B.C. tree species. This report includes guidelines and recommendations for implementing direct seeding in B.C., based on observations from operational trials established in 2013-2017 across the province.
Also known as shelterwood cutting with close selection, the 1-2-3 method developed by FPInnovations is increasingly used as a silvicultural practice adapted to the challenges of ecosystem-based management. This method, used in the first phase of shelterwood cutting, aims to promote the establishment of regeneration before the final harvest. The methods chosen make it possible to reduce the generally high costs of partial cuts by limiting the decrease in productivity of the harvesters caused by the congestion of the caused by the congestion of the residual stand.
Aussi appelée, coupe progressive avec sélection rapprochée, la méthode 1-2-3 mise au point par FPInnovations est de plus en plus utilisée à titre de pratique sylvicole adaptée aux enjeux de l’aménagement écosystémique. Cette méthode, employée lors de la première phase de la coupe progressive, a pour objectif de favoriser l’établissement de la régénération avant la récolte finale. Les modalités choisies permettent de diminuer les coûts généralement élevés des coupes partielles en limitant les baisses de productivité des abatteuses qui sont causées par l’encombrement du peuplement résiduel.
Trials of spot scarification with an excavator were conducted in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec to compliment the natural regeneration of harvested sites. The technique consisted of concentrating the scarification
where advance regeneration was less abundant so as to improve the site’s stocking. Thanks to the flexibility of the excavator, spot scarification produced microsites suitable for in-fill planting or seeding, while preserving a large proportion of the softwood advance regeneration. A winter treatment with simultaneous seeding was also tested for sites that are inaccessible during the summer. The results demonstrated that the productivity of a treatment based on partial scarification with an excavator depended on the treatment intensity, and that the use of this treatment in winter did not significantly reduce the operation’s productivity.
The current infestation of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is having a signigicant effect on the lodgepole pine forests of interior British Columbia. Some of the infested stands will regenerate naturally over time as part of a natural disturbance pattern with fires and stand succession, but other stands will need assistance to restore them before regeneration is established. The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) conducted a literature review examining regeneration issues in lodgepole pine stands killed by mountain pine beetle. The literature review also included regeneration following other large-scale natural disturbances such as wildfire, since the treatments may be applicable to beetle-killed stands.
This report presents a review of seeders and other seeding devices used in reforestation, with an emphasis on seeding of coniferous species in the boreal forest. This functional components of direct-seeding systems and seeder mechanism are described, and details on the equipment most commonly used in Canada are provided.