Harvesting with 33-m trail spacing was proposed by FERIC as a way to meet the quality criteria for single-tree selection in hardwood forests in Quebec's public forests. The approach is, however, applicable to any partial-cutting treatment in hardwood forests, and the method was studied in 16 operations in 2003-2004. The approach represents an acceptable compromise between protection of the residual stand and operating costs, as the productivity of the feller-bunchers using this method decreased only slightly as a result of increased travel. The operations that FERIC studied did not all meet the target quality criteria, but provided an adequate level of protection of residual stems. The method requires a certain degree of control to limit the felling of non-marked stems, and the use of evaluation criteria specially adapted to this method would facilitate its implementation.
This report summarizes work that was performed at the request of Quebec’s Ministère des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune (MRNFQ) as part of updating their economic models for hardwood forest. The study compared the productivity of mechanized felling in a selection cut with the productivity of the same equipment and operators working in a regeneration cut. This comparison generated regression equations for the productivity of mechanized felling as a function of mean stem volume for each type of cut in hardwood and mixed forests.
This report documents the costs and productivities of group-selection harvesting of one-third of a stand in an old-growth cedar–hemlock forest in the interior wet-belt of British Columbia while preserving caribou habitat values. The group-selection harvesting was compared to clearcut and single-tree selection treatments. Harvesting costs were strongly influenced by the merchantability of the harvested stems and the criteria for selecting trees to be harvested. The single-tree selection had the lowest cost because of the selection criteria and merchantability while the group selection had the highest cost. The group selection treatment’s harvesting costs were about 22% greater than for the clearcut treatment.
When implementing ecosystem-based forest management, shelterwood harvesting is often considered as a solution to allow timber harvesting while while maintaining the ecological attributes of mature and overmature forests. However, their impact on wood production and stand regeneration in the boreal forest is still poorly understood. This is the reason for the establishment of a research program of 36 experimental units in 2003-2004 in the northern Saguenay and Lower North Shore.
Lors de la mise en œuvre de l’aménagement forestier écosystémique, les coupes progressives sont souvent considérées comme une solution pour permettre une récolte de bois tout en conservant les attributs écologiques des forêts mûres et surannées. Cependant, leur impact sur la production ligneuse et la régénération des peuplements en forêt boréale est encore mal connu. C’est ce qui a motivé la mise en place d’un dispositif de recherche de 36 unités expérimentales en 2003-2004 au nord du Saguenay et en Basse-Côte-Nord.
FERIC studied the productivity and effectiveness of directional-felling heads in tolerant hardwood selection cuts. The feller-directors proved capable of handling the demands of this type of operation, and delimbing quality matched or exceeded that achieved with feller-bunchers. However, the feller-director with the smaller carrier and low-capacity head encountered more difficulty than the larger head-carrier combination. Delimbing the stems using the feller-directors decreased productivity, but not enough to make the operation uneconomical.
In the Kootenay Lake and Arrow Forest Districts of southeastern British Columbia, harvest planning and selection of harvesting systems must be responsive to high recreation and tourist values and the visually sensitive slopes. In 1992-93, the Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) monitored harvesting on small patch clearcuts, and the British Columbia Ministry of Forests conducted site-disturbance surveys. On one study site, both ground skidding and cable yarding were used, in summer and winter seasons; at the second site, on ground pressure skidders were used and only in summer.
This handbook describes the various types of equipment and systems used for harvesting timber in British Columbia. Falling, primary transport (ground, cable and aerial), processing, and loading phases are described in terms of common and distinguishing features and their relationship to operational and environmental considerations. The handbook also discusses the effects of operating techniques, site characteristics, and external requirements from the same operational and environmental perspectives. Primary operating conditions for the various machines types are outlined in summary tables. A series of flowcharts based on risk-analysis system is used to rank the probability of conducting successful operations with different equipment on various sites.