The aim of this study was to capture data on area-based water delivery systems, specifically in the context of logistics, systems differentiation, water delivery, and its localized effects. FPInnovations successfully collaborated with Fire & Flood to obtain this data. A two-day test was executed during which Fire & Flood set up their 4- and 12-inch systems and carried out sprinkler operations.
Green finger jointing is increasingly becoming a proven possibity with three main technological processes, the New Zealand Greenweld process, the US soybean-based adhesive process and the US soybean-based adhesive process by assessing drying degrade and mechanical performance of green-glued finger-jointed material after drying. The urethane-based adhesive process was studied in a previous project. Overall, we did not observe performance differences between the Greenweld and the soybean-based adhesive processes. This was to be expected since they are both phenol resorcinol formaldehyde types of adhesives. Thus, the process choice should be made based on other considerations than mechanical performance, such as economical or procedure preferences. In comparison with the polyurethane adhesive studied before, it appears obvious that more stress concentration is present at the joint after drying because of the failure modes observed. However, with long term use, this product (the urethane-based adhesive) still needs to be studied because it is less known than the two other phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde based processes. The results also demonstrate that green finger-jointing material, such as black spruce and balsam fir, could at least be used to produce stud grade lumber.
Eastern SPF producters experience an average value loss of $10 to $16/mbf due to drying degrade. A clear understanding of how wood characteristics influence warp will make it easier to effectively modify drying processes to reduce these losses. The goal of this study was to categorize green lumber according to its potential to warp, dry the lumber using a typical industrial kiln schedule and assess whether pieces that either warped or remained straight were correctly identified. Experimental material was a sample of 440 black spruce 8-foot 2x4's from four grain defect groups. These were : 1) control, no grain defects; 2) cross grain but no compression wood; 3) compression wood but no cross grain; and 4) both cross grain and compression wood. Methods used to select lumber with either a high or low potential to warp were successful. Warp was found to be related to the severity of compression wood and cross grain in each piece. Lumber without cross grain or compression wood dried with very little warp. Lumber with both cross grain and compression wood had the lowest quality after drying.