Le niveau de danger associé au transport forestier est extrêmement élevé. En 2014-2015, FPInnovations a répertorié plusieurs technologies commercialisées qui pourraient être adaptées aux opérations forestières. Leurs utilisations permettraient d’améliorer la sécurité et réduire les dangers auxquels sont exposés les conducteurs de camion ainsi que les autres utilisateurs sur les routes canadiennes et les routes d’accès aux ressources (Hickman, 2015). L’une des technologies mentionnées dans ce rapport est le contrôle électronique de la stabilité (CES), qui exige une attention immédiate, car elle sera obligatoire en 2017 pour tous les camions lourds aux États-Unis (National Transportation Safety Board, 2015). Transports Canada (2015) devrait rendre le CES obligatoire pour s’harmoniser avec les règles américaines. L’objectif de la présente note est donc d’explorer les implications de cette obligation sur les opérations forestières canadiennes. FPI a documenté le point de vue de différents intervenants ainsi que la technologie et les lacunes dans les connaissances qui doivent être comblées pour mettre en application ce système dans les opérations forestières.
In the fall of 2001, several cooperating organizations conducted full-scale stability and dynamic tests for a wide range of heavy vehicle configurations in British Columbia. The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) facilitated the testing of six log hauling configurations. This report summarizes the rollover stability and dynamic performance of these configurations and compares their performance with two reference configurations (ship and tanker Super B-trains).
This report as Part I of the series of the experimental work carried out in the Forintek Eastern Laboratory. Medium density fibreboard (MDF) was produced in the pilot plant with two different treatment of chemical agent at two different dosages. The chemicals were sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sodium bisulphite (NaHSO3). Preliminary test results indicate that:
With the dosage used in the experiment (0.1 – 0.2% of SO2 or 0.16 – 0.8% of NaHSO3 on dry wood fibre), no improvement in dimensional stability (TS and WA) and mechanical properties (IB, MOR and MOE) can be observed.
The results suggest that the dosage used for SO2 or NaHSO3 was higher than required and better result might be achieved with lower dosage as increasing the dosage from lower level to higher level for both SO2 and NaHSO3 reduced the panel strength and dimensional stability.
Based on general observation in the experiment, the runability was good with the introduction of either chemicals. However, SO2 was introduced into the system easier than NaHSO3 without extra process procedures.
The experimental work was verified that it is feasible to inject SO2 into the preheater without the gas leakage or contamination to the atmosphere.
Further experimental work is required to identify the optimal chemical dosage for the treatment and their interaction with different resin systems and wood species.
Five fungal species were used to modify and activate natural binding agents from wood fibres for manufacturing MDF panels. Two different methods of the bio-treatment were carried out using these five different fungal species. In the first method, the fungi were inoculated to black spruce (Picea mariana) sawdust, incubated for 20 days at 25ºC, and then refined into wood fibres, with the UF resin loadings of 0% and 8%, respectively. The second method was carried out using normal fibres refined from fresh black spruce sawdust. The fibres were blended with the fungal filtrates in the rotary blender and incubated for 12 hours. MDF panels were made from these different fibres. The mechanical and physical properties were evaluated and compared with the normal MDF panels made of UF resin. Preliminary test results indicate that:
To some extent, the experimental work showed that the self-bonding ability existed after the bio-treatment of wood fibres using the fungal species studied in the project;
All the fungal treated fibres showed the improved bond quality in MDF. The fibres treated with Type-4 fungus yielded the highest bonding strength in the panels with the first treatment method while that with Type-3 had the best result using the second method;
The internal bond strength of all trialed panels without urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin was lower than that of the normal MDF with 8% or 12% UF resin and below the requirement of ANSI standard;
The results suggest that the fungal species studied behave different and no obvious correlation between IB and thickness swell or water absorption can be established;
No obvious consistent trend in MOR and MOE of the panels made with five bio-treatments between two different methods was observed;
Similar MOE and MOR were obtained in the second method among different treatments except T1. The MOE and MOR of T1 panels were lower than those of the rest panels and all of them were significantly lower than those of the control MDF;
This preliminary experiment showed that it is possible to produce MDF using bio-treated fibres with reduced UF resin content in the fibres and it was feasible to use crude extracts of fungi to replace high pure laccase. However, the experimental work was preliminary and further work is required to identify more suitable fungal species and better treatment and process conditions to substantially reduce the time of incubation and process cost to be compatible with the current resin systems used in the manufacture of MDF.
Experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of chemical pre-treatment of wood strands for the manufacture of OSB. The chemicals used for the pre-treatment included low molecular weight liquid PF, low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) and hydrogen peroxide. These chemicals were tested at two dosage levels. The untreated strands and chemically pre-treated strands were characterized for their pH, acid buffer capacity, base buffer capacity and PF resin gel time. Eighteen OSB panels were made with different chemically pre-treated wood strands and compared with the untreated OSB panels as a control using PF or MDI resins. A total of 27 OSB panels were made in this study.
The results suggested that the moisture resistance and dimensional stability of the OSB made from chemically pre-treated wood strands were generally better than the control panels made from untreated wood strands and 3.5% PF resin (C1). However, no obvious improvement was made when comparing to the control OSB panels using untreated wood strands bonded with 7% PF resin (C2) or 3.5% MDI resin (C3). The three different chemicals studied performed differently. The low molecular weight liquid PF performed better than hydrogen peroxide, followed by the low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol). It was found that the wood pH and acid and base buffer capacities were changed after the chemical treatments. However, there was no obvious correlation between these changes and the corresponding PF gel times.
Experimental work was carried out to investigate the effect of chemical pre-treatments and refining process conditions on the panel properties of high density fibreboard (HDF) using typical mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested lodgepole pine sawdust and shavings from a Western Canadian MDF mill as raw materials. The characterisation of the raw materials was conducted in terms of pH, acid buffer capacity, UF resin gel time, and peak temperature and reaction heat tested by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Three different combinations of chemical pre-treatment and refining process condition were studied. HDF panels were made from these three differently treated fibres with 20% urea-formaldehyde resin content on oven dry wood.
The results of the experiment indicated that wood shavings and the wood sawdust present different acid buffer capacities. While the sawdust has the lowest acid buffer capacity and close to both the fresh lodgepole pine and 100% beetle-killed wood studied previously, the acid buffer capacity of the shavings was the highest. Both edge thickness swell and thickness swell of the HDF panels reduced with increasing fibre refining temperature. However, internal bond strength, MOR and MOE of the panels were reduced. The chemical pre-treatment of wood furnish using 0.5% hydrogen peroxide did not improve the dimensional stability of the panel.
An increase in steep-slope harvesting brings the need for a greater understanding of how machines can operate safely and efficiently on steep terrain. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of different operating positions for non-tilting and tilting machines, and to propose a methodology for determining safe operating parameters.
The level of hazards associated with forestry transportation is extremely high. In 2014–2015, FPInnovations had identified several commercially available technologies that could be adapted to forestry operations to improve safety and reduce the hazards faced by truck drivers and the public travelling on Canada’s highways and resource roads (Hickman, 2015). One of the technologies identified in this report is electronic stability control (ESC), which requires immediate attention as it will be mandated in 2017 for all heavy-duty trucks in the United States (National Transportation Safety Board, 2015). Transport Canada (2015) is expected to make ESC mandatory to align with the mandate in the United States. Therefore, the scope of this note is to explore the implication of this mandate on Canadian forest operations. Different stakeholders’ perspectives are documented, and the technology and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to implement this system in an off-highway application are identified.