Three Gram negative bacteria isolated from brownstained western hemlock were investigated for their capacity to produce hemlock brownstain. Brownstain was observed when infecting western hemlock with two bacteria. Oxygen was strongly indicated as being indespensable for the development of brownstain in infected samples. However, pH did not seem to influence the production of this stain.
In summer 2001 we ran one field experiment to test the feasibility of Sylvanex (formerly Cartapip 97) as a biocontrol agent to protect logs from being stained by wild-type bluestain fungi. Freshly felled lodgepole pine logs were spray-treated with Sylvanex, dispersed in water, or with water alone (referred to as non-treated). Sampling of the piles of logs took place after 6 weeks and again after 13 weeks. The bluestained area on discs taken from the logs was measured in the laboratory. The data clearly indicate that Sylvanex can control bluestain in freshly felled lodgepole pine logs if applied immediately after felling to the total log exterior. After six weeks of summer storage, when logs are most vulnerable, Sylvanex-treated logs remained almost spotless compared to heavily stained non-treated logs. After 13 weeks of storage there was moderate stain development in Sylvanex-treated logs but the amount was significantly less than in non-treated logs. The product, and the concept of using albino isolates to control stain, therefore has potential for industrial use. Before Sylvanex is used industrially on a large scale it is recommended that additional studies should investigate whether adjuvants, such as spreaders and stickers, or using higher concentrations of biocontrol agent improve its performance and consistency. In addition the efficacy of the product should be tested on other wood species.
Development of bluestain in logs prevents the Canadian forest industry from producing maximum-value products from a considerable portion of the resource every year. The major purpose of this project was to determine the practical and economic feasibility of using an albino stain of a common bluestain fungus Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97, recently renamed Sylvanex) or equivalent albino fungi to control sapstain in lodgepole pine logs. We also tested the Forintek's eastern laboratory integrated control technology (fungus Gliocladium roseum with alkali). Different activities were planned but as results developed some had to be modified or dropped and others added to the planned work. The various aspects of this work are described in the set of reports that are included in the appendices.
Stains - Fungal - Control - Tests
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains - Fungal
We ran two field experiments in summer 2000 to test the feasibility of using two biocontrol agents to protect logs from being stained by wild-type bluestain fungi. Both Cartapip and Gliocladium roseum showed promise to control stain in freshly felled logs for the critical first 12 weeks of storage.
Results show that:
Cartapip applied at the recommended concentration significantly reduced the amount of stain in the Alberta trials.
Cartapip concentration at 1/3 of the recommended concentration resulted in stain that was not significantly different from that in the control logs.
Tim-Bor and the integrated control with G. roseum also significantly reduced stain but less than did Cartapip applied at the recommended level.
In the B.C. trials the stain prevention effect of Cartapip appeared to be stronger in discs that had large sapwood areas (available areas). However, no treatment effects were found to be statistically significant.
We need to repeat the experiment at least once as consistency must be demonstrated before the biocontrol agent can be used industrially. In our next field studies, we will concentrate on Cartapip. Additional studies could look into optimizing the formula and use of product by testing different concentrations of biocontrol agents, adjuvants (spreaders and stickers), and ways of timing application.