Skip header and navigation

13 records – page 1 of 2.

Effective management techniques for biomass piles to secure access to quality feedstock

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub44269
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
January 2017
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
January 2017
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Biomass
Bark
Storing
FOP Technical Report
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report; TR 2017 n.8
Language
English
Abstract
Improved storage practices will limit the risk of spontaneous combustion of bark piles during storage and support optimized planning of fuel intake at biomass conversion facilities.
Boiler efficiency can be improved by over 5% if biomass moisture can be reduced to 40% from 50%. For a boiler using 34 oven-dry tonnes (ODt)/h of biomass, improved feedstock management can save ~$1.8million/year.
Reducing biomass moisture content by 10% can increase heat value by $9.90/ODt. For a 10-Mw CHP plant purchasing ~50,000 ODt/yr savings would be $495,000 per year. The 60 MW Nova Scotia Power (NSP) plant installed on the Port Hawkesbury Paper (PHP) mill site in Point Tupper, delivers power and required steam input for the paper mill. NSP manages the boiler operations and PHP serves as the main feedstock supplier, which includes handling the storage of the biomass on site. In April 2016, the Nova Scotia Government amended the provincial law that designated the facility as one that must run 24/7, regardless of electricity market prices. The Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board along with NSP estimated it could save $9 million in 2017 by running the Point Tupper power facility on an as-needed basis (CBC, 2016). At a monthly energy requirement of 440 000 gigajoules (GJ), the feedstock supply needed to meet plant demand is 45 000 green metric tonnes (GMt), with a target average moisture content of 50.4% (MacLellan, 2015). The estimated available fuel energy from feedstock with a target moisture content of 50.4% is 9.93 GJ/tonne (GJ/t) (using boiler efficiency data). The estimated monthly supply requirements for the boiler are therefore equal to 45 000 GMt, or 540 000 GMt/year based on full power output. Since the April 2016 law amendment, the planned production output is 55%, with the main product being steam for the paper mill. The annual required supply to run the boiler will be approximately 300 000 GMt, as of July 2016. PHP plans to supply the boiler entirely with bark from three sources:
100 000 GMt from the Bear Head legacy pile
90 000 GMt from the paper mill’s woodroom
110 000 GMt from sawmill purchases The goal of this bark storage trial was to measure the impact of quality (moisture content, dry matter loss) and fire risk over time for innovative pile management techniques (shape, cover, ventilation). The winter supply of bark was targeted as it is the most difficult period in the year to gain access to good quality biomass.
Documents
Less detail

Essais de séchage de bois rond entreposé sous bâche dans la matapédia

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39805
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
Janvier 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
Janvier 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Biomass
Humidity
Drying
Storing
Logs
Advantage
Series Number
Avantage ; Vol. 14, No. 8
Language
French
ISSN
14933381
Abstract
The effects of natural drying in relation to the use of tarps on the moisture content of stacked softwood roundwood were examined. Biomass quality logs were stored for a period of 15 months in a mill yard in the Bas Saint-Laurent region of Quebec. The results of the study showed that the roundwood dried naturally during the summer season with moisture content at the end of the season below 30%. Tarping the roundwood piles during the fall and winter prevented an average increase in moisture content of 6%.
Abstract
Cette étude d'entreposage de la biomasse forestière visait à évaluer les effets du séchage naturel par rapport à l'utilisation de bâches sur la teneur en humidité de bois rond résineux au cours d'une période de 15 mois. Des billes de qualité biomasse ont été empilées dans un parc d'usine de la région du Bas-Saint-Laurent, au Québec. Les résultats de l'étude ont démontré que la biomasse séchait très bien naturellement pendant l'été avec un taux d'humidité en fin de la saison estivale en-dessous de 30%. La bâchage des empilements de biomasse au cours de l'automne et de l'hiver a permis d'éviter une augmentation moyenne du taux d'humidité de 6 %.
Documents
Less detail

Evaluation and economic analysis of twenty-six log-sorting operations on the coast of British Columbia

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub43452
Author
Sinclair, A.W.J.
Date
1980
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Sinclair, A.W.J.
Date
1980
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
47 p
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Logs
Sorting
Storing
Series Number
Technical Notes
Language
English
Abstract
Log sorting
Log storage
Sortyards
PRODUCTIVITY
COSTS
Documents
Less detail

Hardwood initiative - Part 5: Development of new processes and technologies in the hardwood industry : Best practices to avoid hardwood checking. Part II. Prevention of checking by proper storage methods

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39910
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Normand, D.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
After storing for 8 weeks, the treated and untreated logs were inspected for the check rate, length
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Normand, D.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
33 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Hardwoods
Lumber manufacturing
Storing
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project No. TT5.7
Project no.301006878
E-4905
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood checking in many wood species causes considerable economic loss in hardwood industry. They can occur on logs, green timber, kiln- or air-dried lumber and final furniture or flooring components during manufacturing, drying processing, storage and end-use. Wood checking is difficult to be completely eliminated, but can be controlled to an acceptable level by a proper protective measure. This report provides scientific data on the effectiveness of the most common and up-to-date protective products and methods to prevent checking in logs, green lumber and components of sugar maple and yellow birch during storage in Quebec. In the experiment, five commercial protective products were tested on logs and green lumber and three methods were evaluated on furniture components after storage for 8 weeks. The results showed that these protective measures were necessary and effective, more or less, to prevent checking in these stored wood products. For protecting stored logs and green lumber from end checking, the most effective treatment was those logs or lumber end-painted with a white coating product. For protecting stored components from checking, the most effective measure was either end sealed with a paper or pile wrapped with a plastic sheet. No checking was detected on any component of sugar maple and yellow birch protected with either of these two methods after exposure to the extreme environmental conditions for 8 weeks.
Hardwoods - Defects
Control
STORAGE
Documents
Less detail

Élément 5 : Initiative de recherche sur les bois feuillus - Développement de nouveaux procédés et de nouvelles technologies pour le secteur des bois feuillus ; Meilleures pratiques pour éviter la formation de gerces et de fentes sur les produits de bois feuillus. Deuxième partie : Prévention des gerces et des fentes par des méthodes de stockage appropriées

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39911
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Normand, D.
Date
October 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Normand, D.
Date
October 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Hardwoods
Lumber manufacturing
Storing
Series Number
Programme des technologies transformatrices
Project no TT5.7
Project no.301006878
E-4904
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Hardwoods - Defects
Control
STORAGE
Abstract
La formation de gerces et de fentes dans le bois d’un grand nombre d’essences entraîne des pertes économiques considérables pour le secteur des produits de bois feuillus. En effet, les gerces et fentes peuvent se former sur les billes, les sciages à l’état vert et les sciages séchés au séchoir et à l’air et sur les composants de meubles ou les revêtements de sol et ce, en cours de fabrication de séchage, de transformation, de stockage et d'utilisation finale. Bien qu'il soit difficile d'empêcher complètement la formation de gerces et de fentes sur les produits du bois, il est toutefois possible d'en limiter le nombre à un niveau acceptable par l'application de mesures appropriées. Le présent rapport fait état de connaissances scientifiques sur l’efficacité des méthodes et des produits de protection les plus couramment utilisés pour limiter la formation des gerces sur les billes, les sciages à l’état vert et les composants issus du bois d’érable à sucre et de bouleau jaune en stockage au Québec. Dans le cadre de la présente étude, cinq (5) produits protecteurs ont été appliqués sur des billes et des sciages à l’état vert. Par ailleurs, l’efficacité de trois (3) méthodes a été établie au bout d’une période de stockage de huit (8) semaines. Les résultats ont révélé que ces mesures de protection s’imposaient et qu’elles permettaient dans une certaine mesure, de prévenir la formation de gerces et de fentes sur les produits du bois en question. L’application d’un enduit blanc aux extrémités des billes et des sciages verts stockés s’est révélée le traitement le plus efficace contre la formation de gerces et de fentes. L’encollage d’un papier aux extrémités des composants stockés ou leur enveloppement avec une membrane en plastique s’est révélée la méthode la plus efficace pour les protéger contre la formation de gerces et de fentes. Au terme d’une période de stockage de huit (8) semaines dans des conditions environnementales extrêmes, aucune gerce ou fente n’a été détectée sur les composants en bois d’érable à sucre et de bouleau jaune protégés au moyen de l’une ou l’autre de ces deux méthodes.
Documents
Less detail

Log conditioning relating theoretical data to real time data from mills and comparing conditioning systems between two mills by species and season

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52646
Author
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Logs
Storing
Seasonal variation
Trees
Series Number
Industry Partnership
Language
English
Abstract
The main objectives of this report were 1) review an existing heat transfer model (FP LogconTM) developed to estimate required conditioning times for commercial log species according to diameter and environmental conditions (mainly ambient yard and water spray temperatures) and 2) compare theoretical conditioning behaviour with real data supplied by plywood mills and previous experiments on log conditioning. The main findings were: Logcon(TM) underestimated actual log heating rates in larger diameter logs (>15”), at least when ambient temperature is above freezing and warmer water (160°C) is used. It predicts an exponential increase in core conditioning time with diameter and a much greater diameter effect in freezing conditions. Review of past measured heating rate data and mill data from water heating facilities point to a more linear relationship with diameter for logs up to 28”, and heavy confounding effects introducing enormous variability into the data. Contrary to theory, mill data of recorded ribbon average and end (core) temperatures from two different mills and conditioning systems (water spray or wet steam) at different times of the year show no correlation between wood temperatures and log diameters. This suggests significant deviations from model due to factors like location in pile and the vat (front, middle or back). Sampled ribbon temperature data in Summer showed a full edge-to-core temperature inversion by the time of peeling, with ribbon coolest at leading end (log periphery) and hottest at core (Summer sample). Whole ribbons were within optimal temperature window for Douglas fir. Ribbon temperature profiles taken in winter with deficient water heating at the time showed highest temperature in the mid-length, colder cores, and almost no ribbons within the optimal temperature window. Short conditioning times, insufficient heat energy delivered by the water recirculation system combined with heat losses from outside conditioning chambers are the main causes of cold wood at peeling time. Mill data suggest that the shorter period of log heating via wet steam followed by hold equalization may be significantly more effective, particularly in freezing conditions. However this mill recorded ribbon average rather than trailing end (core) temperatures making it difficult to ascertain if there were any frozen cores in the severe Winter samples. Nevertheless the higher and much more consistent ribbon temperature averages across season (summer, mild and severe winter conditions) associated with far more consistent veneer production indices seasonally (reported separately) at the mill suggest the significant advantages of that mill’s wet steam facility. Further work is recommended to modify and update FPLogconTM by collecting real-time log core heating rate data under warm water and wet steam practices in a wider range of environmental conditions. Measured log cooling data is also required. Given the suspected ‘door-cooling’ effect further collection of lathe shift records should aim to identify any patterns associated with where in the vat logs came from if possible, to determine whether better insulation of entrances would be warranted.
Documents
Less detail

Logging use of foreshore leases on the coast of British Columbia

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6054
Author
Sinclair, A.W.J.
McDonald, M.J.
Date
1980
Edition
43451
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Sinclair, A.W.J.
McDonald, M.J.
Date
1980
Edition
43451
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Logs
Sorting
Storing
Series Number
Technical Notes
Language
English
Abstract
Log sorting
Log storage
Leases
Documents
Less detail

Matapedia roundwood tarping trials

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39799
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Biomass
Moisture content
Drying
Storing
Logs
Advantage
Series Number
Advantage ; Vol. 14, No. 8
Language
English
ISSN
14933381
Abstract
The effects of natural drying in relation to the use of tarps on the moisture content of stacked softwood roundwood were examined. Biomass quality logs were stored for a period of 15 months in a mill yard in the Bas Saint-Laurent region of Quebec. The results of the study showed that the roundwood dried naturally during the summer season with moisture content at the end of the season below 30%. Tarping the roundwood piles during the fall and winter prevented an average increase in moisture content of 6%.
Abstract
Cette étude d'entreposage de la biomasse forestière visait à évaluer les effets du séchage naturel par rapport à l'utilisation de bâches sur la teneur en humidité de bois rond résineux au cours d'une période de 15 mois. Des billes de qualité biomasse ont été empilées dans un parc d'usine de la région du Bas-Saint-Laurent, au Québec. Les résultats de l'étude ont démontré que la biomasse séchait très bien naturellement pendant l'été avec un taux d'humidité en fin de la saison estivale en-dessous de 30%. La bâchage des empilements de biomasse au cours de l'automne et de l'hiver a permis d'éviter une augmentation moyenne du taux d'humidité de 6 %.
Documents
Less detail

Mill trial of log storage age effects on veneer production and using LogdryTM to predict douglas fir log residual moisture contents

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52647
Author
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
in winter and increase the veneer drying time and costs. There is a balance between storing logs
Author
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Logs
Storing
Aging
Veneer
Moisture content
Series Number
Industry Partnership
Language
English
Abstract
This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effects of log storage time and conditions at a BC mill yard on veneer production under mill production conditions. The second objective was to validate the FPInnovations LogdryTM drying model for developed for wood piles in Eastern Canadian mills. The software was used to generate drying rate predictions under the BC mill’s prevailing weather conditions and storage times for comparison with some measured residual moisture contents of Douglas fir logs kept in storage at the mill for six and nine months, sampled and peeled in a laboratory trial in 2016. The 2016 lab trials suggested little effect of lengthy (winter) storage up to 9 months but mill experience suggests this is excessively long and logs deteriorate in terms of veneer production and quality considerably earlier. Unfortunately due to experimental circumstances the mill peeling trials for the 9 month stored logs were unable to provide an accurate assessment of the true effect on production. Mills trials indicated % heavy sap had remained fairly stable largely within the mill target of 14% to 17% over the storage periods. During the mill trials there were unavoidable heavy confounding effects of different average diameter for log groups and peeler knife condition affecting the expected veneer production variables. The trials also demonstrated how pile size and height play a major role in protecting logs from drying; with very dry logs having a deleterious effect on veneer production. Logs held in small piles for 12 months or more, even with artificial ‘drying retardants’ such as end sealant and tarping were too dry for reliable peeling, causing very rapid knife wear, spinouts, veneer break-up and line blockages and significant lost recovery. The % heavy sap offtakes from these trials were just 2% to 4%. LogDryTM provides a fairly good estimate of likely drying rate trends of mid-sized (35 cm/14” to 41 cm/16” range) Douglas fir under the BC mills historic weather conditions over 6 and 9 months. LogDryTM (Birch setting) was closest to measured log MC in large diameter (46 cm/18”) logs but the Aspen setting was closer to measured MC in small logs (<30 cm/12”). In the limited sample of logs available from the mill in 2016 the 12” logs were much drier after 9 months storage than the model predicted, even on the Aspen setting. Further sampling of piled logs in the small diameter range is needed to verify this observation. LogDryTM was used to estimate drying rates of logs stored before or after Summer. Modelling indicated a shorter viable storage window for logs delivered before Summer compared to just before Winter, especially in the 6-month range. Residual log MCs were very similar after 12 months regardless of start time. Further work is required to better calibrate LogdryTM for major Western Canadian species, particularly Douglas fir, Spruce and Lodgepole pine, and reduce the calculation time for simulations. Further adjustment may be needed for simulating real drying rates in very small logs. The model assumption of similar residual MC after 12 months regardless of start time also needs to be verified.
Documents
Less detail

Moisture evaluation and veneer peeling of douglas fir and spruce logs from different mills and log yard age inventories

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49466
Author
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2017
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2017
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
69 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Moisture content
Veneer
Fir
Spruce
Storing
Language
English
Abstract
A total of 48 peeler blocks and 256 mini-billets were sampled from mills to investigate the effects of yard storage time, and artificial yard drying and sprinkling on residual moisture contents (MCs) and veneer quality. MC in fresh and stored log inventories varied greatly across mills according to geographic location of their wood supply zones, bark damage and loss, and storage time and conditions. The main findings were as follows: 1. DF logs supplied by three BC mills from the Cariboo, Thompson Okanagan, or Kootenay regions were highly variable in wood MC. 2. Winter-cut DF logs with high sapwood MC stored had good bark retention and high moisture retention over 6 and 9 winter-spring months. No effects on veneer peeling roughness from longer-term winter storage up to 9 months. 3. Summer-cut logs had little or no residual bark, or the bark slipped off very easily during debarking. Exposed, bark-free summer-cut logs can dry and crack on edges and ends very quickly, within a few weeks. 4. A marked decline in veneer quality with piling time in Summer for spruce and DF, suggesting an optimum window of processing of such exposed logs of about two weeks. Veneer quality and recovery suffered markedly once the logs had fully air dried mainly because of edge splits creating natural fragmentation of the ribbon. 5. Mills receiving dry-zone logs with much lower MC have a very limited storage window, especially over winter. As little as 2-3 weeks if bark is damaged or missing. 6. Veneer quality could not be definitively tied to log residual MC. Under the controlled laboratory conditions used here it was observed that peeling quality could still be good at low sapwood MC (35-40%) and or very high (MC>100%). Whether this is still the case in mill production is unknown. 7. Logs must never be allowed to fall below FSP and develop edge-checks or deep end checks. 8. Wax emulsion end sealants were effective at hampering drying and end checking on high MC logs, but not effective on low MC logs. 9. Sprinkling retained log freshness and peel quality in high MC DF for several months and prevented log drying and end splitting as well as inner log staining. Ends absorbed considerable extra moisture. Some variability in peel quality was noted. 10. The prototype EM1000 Ground Penetrating Radar could only be reliably used in log edge mode in DF. The unit would also require re-calibration for the very high sapwood MC in spruce and wet-zone DF logs.
Documents
Less detail

13 records – page 1 of 2.