A system which integrates architectural and structural design issues for timber connections will be developed for a limited number of connections and loading conditions which are dealt with in various national and international codes and standards. The scope of engineering issues relevant to connections will be expanded to include a wide range of timber connections and engineering solutions which are not covered by code procedures. This will include cases such as 3-dimensional loading configurations, dynamic analysis of connections and more rigorous analysis procedures. Progress on these objectives is described.
Through the coordinated initiatives of industry and the Provincial and Federal governments, Canada has made significant progress in the acceptance of Canadian wood products and wood-frame construction in the codes and standards of China, Taiwan and South Korea. Technical input to support favourable revisions to the codes and standards in these countries has been spearheaded by Forintek staff, with support from representatives from various national organizations in Canada and the US. In this process, Forintek also has established a network of experts in these countries, which Canada can use in addressing potential future technical barriers.
The effort has resulted in changes to the Chinese quality inspection code (GB 50206) and the timber design code (GB 50005). The GB 50206 was released in July 2002. The inclusion of North American wood frame construction and products has helped speed up inspection for wood frame construction in China.
The GB 50005 was released in January 2004. The newly enacted code allows local engineers to design North American platform frame construction and specify North American species groups of structural lumber that are graded to rules that are compatible with those in Canada. Fire protection regulations have also been revised to position wood frame construction on the same playing field as buildings made of concrete and steel: for example, wood frame construction can now be built up to three storeys, and spatial separations can be as close as 4 m.
Progress has also been made in Taiwan. The revised Taiwanese timber design code approved in 2003 contains engineering and pre-engineered designs adopted from North America standards. The submission of technical comparisons of the Canadian and Taiwanese standards to the Taiwanese government will help the Canadian forest industries to obtain Taiwanese regulatory recognition that Canadian wood products in compliance with Canadian standards will meet the pertinent Taiwanese standards. This recognition will give Canadian suppliers a head start in establishing a share of the Taiwanese market.
The effort in 2003-04 builds on the successful working relationship established with the various codes and standards committees in China and Taiwan to assist them in introducing the North American wood frame construction system. Although it is understood that there are still a number of technical and market support items to address, this program ensures that a coherent infrastructure is developed to support the use of Canadian wood products in the Far East markets.
Building construction - Specifications - China
Building construction - Specifications - Taiwan
Building construction - Specifications - South Korea
Structural engineering - Specifications - China
Structural engineering - Specifications - Taiwan
Structural engineering - Specifications - South Korea
A concept for a wood frame construction system suitable for medium-rise buildings and/or buildings with large openings has been developed and patented. The system is composed of prefabricated column modules and continuous beams that can be cut to size at a manufacturing plant. Column modules, a primary feature of the system, have four standardized configurations depending on the configuration of the beams they are supporting. Each column module has at least two full-module-height vertical members spaced apart and diagonally-braced with wood and steel to provide lateral resistance to wind and earthquake forces. The column modules are placed at optimum plan spacings to support large-span continuous beams prefabricated with engineered composite products. A goal of this research was to prove the principle that the modular column assembly as originally patented can carry loads of a magnitude that could be expected in service. It was apparent from load-testing the patented design, however, that many shortcomings exist. In some cases this design could not meet test case load values expected in service, and could not sustain high design load levels for very long without softening. The patented design, in spite of reasonable ductility and good elastic recovery, also lacked the stiffness necessary to resist light horizontal loadings such as daily winds. As a result of many difficulties identified with this patented prototype, a second-generation column module design (with preliminary modeling analysis in hand) is awaiting consideration for construction and testing. The key to the success of this building system lies with the correct design of the column module to render appropriate horizontal racking and vertical load-carrying performance. It is recommended that the results of this research be pursued further to address some of the shortcomings found during the testing of this first patented prototype specimen. This proposed work should include finalizing examination of the racking test data of the original column module design, finalizing the modeling of a second generation prototype that addresses the shortcomings of the original design, and constructing and testing a second-generation prototype design. The aim is to deliver a viable system (with supporting data) to any potential collaborator for commercial considerations. This work should be complete and a final report submitted by 31, August 1997.
This report presents the results of personal interviews and surveys with small builders and consumers conducted in Japan from March 1998 to June 1998. Each of the six products groups are presented in separate reports starting with Wood Furniture followed by Outdoor Furnishings, Interior Finish, Wood Structural Members, Engineered Structural Products and Building Systems. This section summarizes the results for Building Systems.
This report presents the results of personal interviews and surveys with small builders and pre-cutters conducted in Japan from March 1998 to June 1998. Each of the six product groups are presented in separate reports starting with Wood Furniture followed by Outdoor Furnishings, Interior Finish, Wood Structural Members, Engineered Structural Products and Building Systems. This section summarizes the results for Engineered Structural Products.
This report presents the results of personal interviews and surveys with small builders and pre-cutters conducted in Japan from March 1998 to June 1998. Each of the six product groups are presented in separate reports starting with Wood Furniture followed by Outdoor Furnishings, Interior Finish, Wood Structural Members, Engineered Structural Products and Building Systems. This section summarizes the results for Wood Structural Members.
The complexity of the current timber connection design process is one of the major reasons preventing the wider use of wood products in low-rise non-residential and innovative residential construction. Connections of members in structures, particularly in timber buildings, require the combination of both quantitative and qualitative aspects of design to produce a safe and aesthetically pleasing structure. Knowledge-based expert systems offer designers access to the full range of design methods, allowing the connection design task to be completed with ease and confidence. This study investigates the expert system approach by constructing a framework for such a design aid - a framework that incorporates techniques from artificial intelligence, architecture, and engineering. The design aid has potential for industrial application, and could be developed into an educational tool for timber and wood product design courses at the university level.
The selection of a structural system is an important decision as it dictates which materials will be used in a building. This makes structural and serviceability performance a very important attribute for the use of wood products. With its alliances, Forintek has been and still is one of the main providers of the technical information to keep wood structural systems competitive with respect to other materials.
A review of our structural research strategy as part of the Building Systems Program was undertaken so that our efforts focus on the areas with the greatest positive impact on Canadian wood products and systems. A national strategy for structural research in line with Forintek’s strategic research direction was developed in consultation with representatives from the wood products industry and the structural engineering community.
As wood construction evolves to absorb emerging engineered products and hybrid building techniques, the resulting system provides opportunities for the wood products industry to obtain a larger share of the non-residential building market, which has traditionally been the domain of non-wood products. The national structural strategic plan will further enhance Forintek’s contributions towards maintaining and expanding markets for Canadian wood products and systems.