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55 records – page 1 of 6.

An Integrated torsion-bending vibration test method for monitoring waferboard strength properties

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38404
Author
Lau, P.W.C.
Tardif, Y.G.
Date
March 1990
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Lau, P.W.C.
Tardif, Y.G.
Date
March 1990
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
24 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Waferboard testing
Waferboards
Test methods
Mechanical properties
Series Number
CFS project no.12
4310M031
E-1211
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Waferboard - Test Method
Waferboard - Strength Properties
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Automated log pocket monitoring system for OSB mills

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3063
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
April 2013
Edition
39712
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2013
Edition
39712
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Strandboards
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
W-3008
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A prototype scanning system successfully demonstrated the capability of real-time, log pocket monitoring that can be used to alert operators of improper pocket filling practice. Several previous FPInnovations studies have shown that the log pocket filling is often poorly controlled resulting in poor log alignment and/or incomplete filling that adversely affects both flake quality and strander productivity. Until now there have been no systems available to automatically measure the alignment of logs being fed into the strander or measurement of the actual filling of the strander pockets. An automated monitoring system is needed to signal operators when the log pocket is improperly loaded. This feedback can allow operators to maintain proper log filling procedure to maximize flaking quality. In March 2013 a machine vision scanning system comprised of a camera, 2 line lasers and computer with image analysis software, was tested for two days at the Peace Valley OSB mill (PVOSB) in Fort Saint John, BC. The scanner’s camera and lasers were mounted 13 feet above the center of the log pocket base. Images of pocket filling were acquired and analyzed for pass/fail conditions. Two image groups were selected for analysis, one of full pocket, aligned logs (pass) and the other containing misaligned logs and/or insufficient pocket fill (fail). For all pocket scans, scanner measurements were compared to manual visual classification. Approximately 50 different pockets were scanned with results and images saved for analysis. For fill height and vertical log alignment measurement, the scanner correctly identified >95% of all the pockets examined. However, log alignment measurement in the horizontal x-y plane did not function as intended due to poor image contrast that could not be resolved during the mill trial. This technique has been shown to work well in previous pilot plant tests (Groves, 2012) which confirms that the underlying measurement fundamentals are sound. It is recommended that only minor lighting adjustments are required for the scanning system to work well in a mill setting. Implementing this technology in OSB mills should help to reduce the occurrence of poor pocket filling that can adversely affect strand quality. It should be noted that even small improvements to strand quality and productivity can yield significant cost benefits. It is estimated that reducing fines by a modest 1% and improving productivity by 1% can return in excess of $1 million/year based on an average size Canadian OSB mill.
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture
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Automated plywood edge grading system

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3066
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
April 2013
Edition
39715
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2013
Edition
39715
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Plywood
Grading
Series Number
W-3009
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In plywood mills finished panels are manually graded and sorted based on specific defects. The panel edges are especially difficult to grade by human visual inspection due to the small nature of different defects, especially at higher line speeds. This can result in misread errors that can be costly. In this project a prototype scanner, based on 3D laser profilometry, was developed by FPInnovations and demonstrated in two Canadian plywood mills for automatic edge grading. At both mills, panels were scanned on the production line in real time, collecting full length, 3-dimensional edge profiles in the x, y and z coordinate fields that were then analyzed by computer software sub-routines to identify defects for each panel. The data was processed to categorize groups of data points, depending on the edge profile depth (z-axis) variation, length (x-axis) and height (y-axis) into the specific defect categories of core, top and bottom edge void, core gap and core overlap, based on the values of predetermined edge profile thresholds. Results from the two mill tests showed that the scanner was effective with a correct identification rate greater than 80%. The lack of panel hold-downs at each mill resulted in extreme height variation of the panel edges and this limited the defect detection accuracy. Based on the tests, the technology for automated edge grading is feasible. Longer term mill evaluations are recommended with adequate panel hold-downs in place before confirming that this technology is ready for commercialization.
Plywood - Grading
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Bending strength and stiffness of log stringers for bridges on forest roads: tests of second-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock logs

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5843
Author
Bennett, Douglas M.
Modesto, R.
Ewart, Jim
Jokai, Rob
Parker, Seamus
Clark, Marv
Date
January 2005
Edition
40689
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Bennett, Douglas M.
Modesto, R.
Ewart, Jim
Jokai, Rob
Parker, Seamus
Clark, Marv
Date
January 2005
Edition
40689
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Transportation & Infrastructure
Subject
Test methods
Mechanical properties
Second growth
Ruptures
Procedures
Logs
Sample
Growth
Design
British Columbia
Bending
Advantage
Series Number
Advantage ; Vol. 5, No. 42
Language
English
Abstract
In order to provide bridge designers with better information, International Forest Products Limited (Interfor) asked the Forest Engineering Resarach Institute of Canada (FERIC) to evaluate the bending strength and stiffness of log stringers used for constructing bridges on forest roads in coastal British Columbia. Given the lack of definitive standards for testing this material, FERIC developed a field-based test procedure and designed a test facility for destructive testing of full-size, whole-log stringers obtained from second-growth stands. Sixteen coastal Douglas-fir and twelve western hemlock logs were tested in 2003. This report describes the test procedure and methods of analysis, presents the log bending strength and stiffness results, and makes recommendations regarding future testing.
Bridge design
Log stringers
Bending strength
Modulus of rupture
Modulus of elasticity
Test procedure
Second-growth logs
Douglas fir
Western hemlock
Coastal British Columbia
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Bilan de la personnalisation de masse de l'industrie canadienne de meubles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3070
Author
Drouin, M.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39719
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Drouin, M.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39719
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
33 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Furniture
Canada
Series Number
301006974
E-4812
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude avait pour objectif de faire le bilan de l’utilisation de la personnalisation de masse au sein de l’industrie manufacturière canadienne de meubles en bois. Nous avons mesuré l’importance de cette stratégie pour l’industrie du meuble et les niveaux de personnalisation proposés par les manufacturiers. Cette étude a également été l’occasion de sonder quelques détaillants de meubles pour connaître l’impact de la personnalisation de masse sur la vente au détail. Les analyses réalisées témoignent de l’importance de la personnalisation de masse comme stratégie commerciale pour les manufacturiers de meubles canadiens dans leur offre de produits. L’évaluation des sites internet de cent (100) manufacturiers de meubles permet constater qu’une faible proportion de manufacturiers n’offre aucune option de personnalisation aux consommateurs. La majorité des manufacturiers s’est lancée à différents niveaux, soit dans une stratégie de variétisation, d’accessorisation, de configuration ou de production sur mesure. La variétisation est le niveau de personnalisation le plus rencontré, à la fois pour les segments du mobilier en bois et du mobilier rembourré. Cette variétisation s’exprime le plus couramment par un choix de couleurs dans le segment du meuble en bois, alors qu’elle s’exprime le plus couramment par un choix de cuirs et de tissus dans le segment du meuble rembourré. Les entrevues réalisées auprès de détaillants de meubles ont permis d’établir que de façon générale, ces commerçants considèrent positivement la personnalisation de masse. Aux dires de ces détaillants, l’acquisition d’un meuble personnalisé est très appréciée par la majorité des consommateurs. Les détaillants rencontrés considèrent que les avantages liés à l’achat d’un meuble personnalisé aux besoins et goûts des consommateurs compensent amplement pour les quelques inconvénients encourus tels le temps de vente et de livraison un peu plus longs. Toutefois, il semble que la personnalisation de masse, telle que présentée actuellement par les manufacturiers, convienne davantage aux petits détaillants qu’aux magasins de détail de grandes superficies qui doivent gérer un plus grand nombre de manufacturiers, donc de stratégies de personnalisation diversifiées.
Furniture industry - Canada
Furniture - Manufacture
Abstract
Les entrevues réalisées auprès de détaillants de meubles ont permis d’établir que de façon générale, ces commerçants considèrent positivement la personnalisation de masse. Aux dires de ces détaillants, l’acquisition d’un meuble personnalisé est très appréciée par la majorité des consommateurs. Les détaillants rencontrés considèrent que les avantages liés à l’achat d’un meuble personnalisé aux besoins et goûts des consommateurs compensent amplement pour les quelques inconvénients encourus tels le temps de vente et de livraison un peu plus longs. Toutefois, il semble que la personnalisation de masse, telle que présentée actuellement par les manufacturiers, convienne davantage aux petits détaillants qu’aux magasins de détail de grandes superficies qui doivent gérer un plus grand nombre de manufacturiers, donc de stratégies de personnalisation diversifiées.
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Construction d'habitations en bois de 5 ou 6 étages

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42914
Author
FPInnovations
Date
January 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
FPInnovations
Date
January 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
77 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Test methods
Building construction
Residential construction
Quebec
Location
Montréal, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Building construction - Design
Wood structures
LAMINATED WOOD
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Cost reduction and optimization of advanced impregnation technologies with nanotechnology

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39698
Author
Cai, X.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Cai, X.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
87 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Surface properties
Optimization
Impregnation
Costs
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project No. TT1.18
Project no.201000354
E-4803
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This study selected acylate monomers/oligomers as the nanoparticle transportation chemicals to produce high value-added wood surface densification products. The effect of nanoparticles in the formulations on the Brinell surface hardness, impact resistance and abrasion resistance was evaluated in this project. It was found that the addition of nanoparticles showed significant effect on mechanical properties of surface densification wood products. Different ratio of monomer/oligomers formulation and their viscosities on the chemical retention and penetration properties were investigated. Lower viscosity formulation presented better penetration and higher chemical retention with same surface densification process. Two optimized advanced surface densification processes were developed to improve the efficiency and lower the chemical retention thus to decrease the cost of final value-added surface densification wood products. The first optimized advanced densification process that prepared surface-densified wood product by replacing the traditional time-consuming pressurization stage with only a short vacuum process was investigated. Formulations with nanoparticles were successfully impregnated into maple and oak engineered wood flooring planks by using a vacuum time from 30 s to 10 min without further pressurizing during the impregnation process. The properties of these short vacuum process impregnated wood products were also comparable to or even superior to the conventional vacuum/pressure impregnated wood products. The Brinell surface hardness of impregnated maple wood were improved 205% with a 30s vacuum process and oak wood were improved 108% with 60s vacuum process. The second optimized advanced surface densification process contained three steps process. The 1st step consists on application of a layer of resin on the wood surface by roller or curtain coater; the 2nd step is using a 60s vacuum to penetrate the resin into the wood surface to a target depth 1-2 mm; the 3rd step is to cure the impregnated wood with UV/thermal dual in situ polymerization process. The chemical retention decreased drastically with this approach compare to conventional vacuum/pressure impregnation process. 22% improvement of the Brinell surface hardness was found through this low cost approach. Electron beam (EB) and UV/thermal dual cure process which was industrial viable online in situ polymerization process have been successfully developed to cure the surface densification wood products. The efficacy of EB and UV/thermal dual cure was validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and photo-DSC characterization. The results showed that EB cure is a powerful instant online polymerization method to cure the fully penetrated chemical surface densification wood products with a relative high capital investment on equipment. UV/thermal dual cure method is a cost-effective approach to polymerize the roller/coater resin application and vacuum penetration surface densified wood products. In general, this study implied that reduce cost from surface densification process is possible through application of resin by roller/curtain coater followed with a short vacuum process to penetrate the resin into wood surface. This work also implied that in situ UV/thermal dual cure could replace the high cost EB cure surface densification products, which in turn, favour our industrial to adopt this technology cost-effectively.
COST CONTROL
OPTIMIZATION
IMPREGNATION
NANOPARTICLES
SURFACE PROPERTIES
DENSIFICATION
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Determining optimal inoculation method and incubation time for bioincising with D. squalens on commercial sized spruce and pine

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42910
Author
Dale, Angela
Uzunovic, Adnan
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dale, Angela
Uzunovic, Adnan
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Preservation
Series Number
Transformative Technologies : Project No.301006156
W-3010
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Wood decay is one of the primary factors limiting wood as a building material, reducing the competitiveness of wood against other engineered products. Wood preservatives or other wood enhancing treatments can reduce the risk of decay; however, Canadian wood species such as spruce and pine are difficult to treat to meet Canadian and USA standards due to a thin sapwood band and refractory heartwood. This puts the Canadian wood preservation industry at a competitive disadvantage in both domestic and international markets. Biological incising with Dichomitus squalens was originally done in Austria in the 1990s to increase the permeability of European spruce prior to treatment with wood preservatives. In 2010, FPInnovations screened Canadian isolates of various white-rot fungi to identify an isolate that would be suitable for biological incising of Canadian spruce and pine. An isolate of Dichomitus squalens isolated from white spruce was found to greatly increase the permeability of the wood, particularly in spruce. Follow up studies in 2011 and 2012 confirmed that the results could be reproduced on commercial sized wood in non-sterile conditions, and showed that longer times would be required for bioincising in pine which is more resistant to D. squalens. Strength loss on small clear specimens with through treatment was slightly higher in some samples than with conventional incising. The solid inoculum method was very successful but would be difficult to commercialize. Laboratory tests showed that higher temperatures around 30 °C could be used to speed up growth, but still longer incubation times were needed for pine. The current study was undertaken to determine the effect and feasibility of three different inoculation methods on the bioincising process: inoculation with grain colonized by D. squalens, a liquid spray inoculation (via dipping and via spray), and a mycelial mat (mycelium grown on the surface of agar and grown on paper). In addition the higher incubation temperature on 2x4 samples of both pine and spruce was tested at four, five and six weeks incubation for spruce, and six, seven and eight weeks incubation for pine. Results from the experiment suggest that liquid inoculum (spray) performs as well as grain inoculum. Spruce samples exposed for six weeks reached an average penetration of 10 mm through the heartwood face and 22 mm through the edge. Forty percent of the samples reached a minimum of 10 mm penetration on the heartwood face, and 80% reached 10 mm penetration through the edge. The ease of application via spraying (liquid inoculation method) makes this a more desirable method to use in an industrial setting. The greatest increases in preservative penetration were at six weeks in the grain inoculated samples; however, five and six week’s incubation for liquid inoculation were close. The results for bioincising on pine were much more variable, and increasing the incubation time did not substantially increase preservative penetration. This suggests that the fungal isolate used may not be suited to pine wood.
INOCULATION
Preservation - Incising
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Development of an air quality test program for composite mills

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41652
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
E-2173
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Air Quality
Composite Mills
Test
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Development of chitosan-based adhesives for wood composites

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5772
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Zhang, Yaolin
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Feng, Martin
Date
March 2013
Edition
39730
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Zhang, Yaolin
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Feng, Martin
Date
March 2013
Edition
39730
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Materials
Adhesives
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project No. TT 3.4.10
301006168
E-4819
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide deacetylated from chitin, which is naturally occurring in large amount in shells of marine crustaceans. Chitosan is soluble in weakly acidic aqueous solutions and possesses an adhesive property. Chitosan has received much attention for medical and industrial applications; however, only limited studies have been conducted on the application of chitosan as a wood adhesive because of its bonding properties on wood are poor. To improve the adhesive quality of chitosan resin, an innovative study on chitosan adhesives has been conducted to use selected fungal species to modify chitosan and improve its bonding property, to synthesize non-formaldehyde resin with the fungus-modified chitosan and to prepare UF and PF resins enhanced with the fungal modified chitosan. Bonding properties of wood composites made with these chitosan-based green wood adhesives in terms of lap-shear strength were significantly improved in this study. Unmodified chitosan solution was not compatible with ammonium lignosulfonate liquid, liquid PF resin, soybean resin, PF powder, or soybean flour, but was compatible with UF resin (liquid), PVA resin, or phenol. With addition of chitosan in UF and PVA resins, both dry and wet shear strengths of plywood panels were improved comparing with the use of the control UF and PVA resins without chitosan. A number of chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins as binder for particleboard manufacturing have been prepared. Six (6) types of particleboards with different levels of resin loadings and press conditions were manufactured and evaluated for the bond quality of chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins. The results showed that all formulations of chitosan-UF adhesives were able to produce particleboards with nice appearance, even those made of only with 1% of chitosan resin alone. All chitosan resins, alone or added to UF resins, had a better IB strength than UF control resin. The panels made of 1% of chitosan resin plus 66% of UF resin in a 1:1 ratio had the highest IB strength.
CHITOSAN
Adhesives - Composite materials
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55 records – page 1 of 6.