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Analysis of western red cedar heartwood extractives by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and identification of unknown compound J

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1428
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Stirling, Rod
Date
February 2009
Edition
37928
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Stirling, Rod
Date
February 2009
Edition
37928
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja
Thuja plicata
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 3807
W-2604
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
To better understand the role extractives play in western red cedar’s decay resistance, commonly detected but unknown extractives need to be identified and evaluated for their potential contribution to natural durability. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for separating extractives from western red cedar has been developed. Mass spectral detection provides useful structural information that gives increased confidence in peak identifications and helps to identify unknown peaks. Using LC/MS data, combined with data from UV and NMR spectroscopy, unknown compound J commonly found in many samples of WRC we have analysed, was identified as alpha-thujaplicin. This was known to be a major extractive in eastern white cedar but was considered to be a negligible component of WRC. Its potential contribution to the durability of WRC has not been considered in previous work attempting to correlate durability to specific extractives.
Thuja plicata - Extractives
Thujaplicins
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Characteristics of waterlogged western red cedar and western hemlock wood : implications for the salvage of timber from the Kinbasket reservoir in B.C.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1064
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Lum, Conroy
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
December 1997
Edition
37465
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Lum, Conroy
Daniels, C. Robert
Contributor
Forest Renewal BC
Date
December 1997
Edition
37465
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Timber
Thuja plicata
Series Number
W-1470
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Samples of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] and western red cedar [Thuja plicata Donn] trees completely submerged standing in a fresh water reservoir for approximately 24 years were examined in terms of relative wood density, extractives content in cedar and mechanical properties of small clear specimens. Due to diameter limitations in the sample material, test results for modulus of elasticity (MOE) in compression parallel-to-the-grain were found to be unreliable, but could be expected to compare to published values in a like manner as other test results. Based on the results of tests for wood density, extractives content and strength properties of small clears, the sound wood quality of submerged western hemlock and western red cedar is comparable to that of these species in general. Mitigating these favourable results, however, were the low proportion of sound logs recovered, external checking of log surfaces, and fine shake observed in red cedar which could have a negative impact on appearance grades. Definite determination of submerged wood quality would require sawing of logs, and evaluation of lumber yield and properties, and long-term tests for durability of the red cedar.
FRBC Contract No. 976C057
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Comparison of natural and artificial weathering of treated and untreated western red cedar shakes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41004
Author
Cserjesi, Antal Ja'nos
Johnson, E.L.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
January 1984
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Cserjesi, Antal Ja'nos
Johnson, E.L.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
January 1984
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja plicata
Shingles durability
Shingles
Series Number
02-65-43-013
W-352
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Thuja plicata - Shingles
Shingles - Durability
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Contribution of western red cedar foliage components in wood adhesives

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37044
Author
MacDonald, B.F.
Nault, J.R.
Swan, E.P.
Date
June 1982
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
MacDonald, B.F.
Nault, J.R.
Swan, E.P.
Date
June 1982
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Thuja plicata
Glue
Analysis
Series Number
CFS Contract 02-80-43-164
W-252
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Foliar analysis
Foliage products
Glue - Fillers
Thuja plicata
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Croissance, propriétés et utilisations du Western Red Cedar

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38910
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don)/par Josefi na S. Gonzalez. (publication spéciale , ISSN
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Thuja plicata
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Physical properties
Growth
Series Number
E-3969
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
French
Abstract
Le Western Red Cedar est un arbre très répandu sur la côte Nord-Ouest du Canada et des États-Unis et dans les forêts pluviales de l'intérieur de la Colombie-Britannique (C.-B.). Cet arbre constitue l'une des essences résineuses les plus anciennes en Amérique du Nord et les plus résistantes à l'altération par les champignons ou les insectes. C'est pourquoi il peut atteindre une très grande taille. Depuis des temps immémoriaux, les Premières nations de la région du Nord-Ouest ont utilisé le bois, les branches, l'écorce et les racines du Western Red Cedar à des fins rituelles ou religieuses, ou dans la fabrication de maisons, de moyens de transport, de vêtements, d'objets domestiques ou d'accessoires de pêche ou de chasse. Mesurée en volume de bois debout, la présence des Red Cedars en C.-B. représente environ 750 millions de mètres cubes. Plus de la moitié de ces arbres se trouvent dans la région côtière, où ils se classent au deuxième rang parmi les conifères les plus répandus, la majeure partie de la côte se composant d'anciennes forêts, c'est-à-dire vieilles de plus de 250 ans. À eux seuls, les parcs ou d'autres zones protégées abritent quelque 50 millions de mètres cubes des Red Cedars présents dans la région côtière. Une portion notable de ces Red Cedars se trouve également dans la "forêt exploitable" de la Côte, dont une grande partie a obtenu, ou obtiendra bientôt, sa certification environnementale. Les jeunes plants de Red Cedar commencent à prendre de la maturité et, avec les Red Cedars plus anciens, sont exploités pour la grande valeur de leur bois. La quantité de Red Cedar exploités tourne autour de six millions de m3 par an, soit une quantité jugée écologiquement soutenable, compte tenu de la possibilité de coupe pour l'ensemble de la province. Le Western Red Cedar est un bois léger, de texture uniforme, de fil droit et dépourvu de résine. Ces caratéristiques en font un excellent bois d'oeuvre et une essence très recherchée pour les applications exigeant une résistance à l'altération par les champignons, une stabilité dimensionnelle ou un bon pouvoir isolant. Ce bois se prête à de nombreuses utilisations telles que la fabrication de revêtements extérieurs, de terrasses, de clôtures, d'accessoires de jardin, de rondins traditionnels ou de lamellés pour l'industrie de la construction, de poteaux de services publics, et de produits de spécialité tels que panneaux de revêtement intérieurs, instruments de musique et bardeaux de toit (souvent faits à partir de troncs d'arbres morts trouvés dans la forêt). Même si seuls les déchets de scierie sont employés dans la fabrication de la pâte à papier, l'excellente morphologie du Western Red Cedar est recherchée dans la production de pâte kraft pure ou mélangée, aux fins de fabrication de produits de papier pour usages spéciaux. Le Western Red Cedar a fait l'objet de nombreuses études scientifiques, particulièrement en ce qui a trait à ses propriétés chimiques exceptionnelles. Les matières extractibles contenues dans le bois de coeur agissent sur les caractéristiques de celui-ci dans une proportion bien supérieure à la quantité de matière présente. Ces matières extractibles donnent au bois son caractère particulier, et celles qui confèrent au Red Cedar sa grande durabilité font actuellement l'objet d'importantes découvertes. Des recherches sont présentement effectuées sur les utilisations possibles de l'huile de bois et des matières extractibles purifiées du bois. En Colombie-Britannique, on procède depuis 1987 à l'extraction et à la vente de l'huile des feuilles. Des recherches se poursuivent sur l'interrelation entre le taux de croissance, la densité et la durabilité du bois selon qu'il est soumis à différentes pratiques sylvicoles. Les données indiquent que la densité du bois de Red Cedar à croissance rapide est moindre que celle du bois ancien, mais cela n'affecte pas son utilité, étant donné qu'il sert principalement à des fins décoratives ou à la fabrication de produits non structuraux. Les recherches sur la durabilité du Red Cedar de seconde génération sont en cours, et tout semble indiquer que les matières extractibles contenues dans les jeunes arbres vigoureux de seconde génération sont beaucoup plus abondantes que celles présentes dans le bois de coeur des Red Cedars que l'on retrouve dans les forêts anciennes de même âge depuis la germination des graines. Cela est probablemetn attribuable en grande partie au fait que les microorganismes présents dans les arbres anciens sur pied finissent par dégrader les matières extractibles. Le Western Red Cedar constitue l'un des arbres les plus étudiés du monde entier. Ce document fait le point sur les connaissances actuelles concernant cette essence et traite de la croissance, des propriétés et des utilisations du Western Red Cedar.
Thuja plicata - Physical properties
Growth - Influence on quality
Growth - Influence on physical properties
Wood quality
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Directional felling of large old-growth cedar trees

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub43413
Author
Guimier, D.Y.
Date
1980
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Guimier, D.Y.
Date
1980
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
45 p
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Feller
Thuja plicata
Language
English
Abstract
FELLING
Directional felling
Tree breakage
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Documents
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Durability of treated commodities : a compilation of reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41198
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja plicata
Termites
Softwoods
Shingles preservation
Shingles durability
Shingles
Preservatives tests
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Preservation
Posts
Posts preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Penetration
Joints
Ammonia
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 14
Project No. 1054
W-1591
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In the 3-year rotation of subject matter for the reports of the "Durability of Wood" project, attention has again turned to treated commodities. In these tests, we evaluate not only the efficacy of the wood preservative, but also the effect on performance of the quality of treatment that can be achieved with Canadian wood species. The collection of long-term performance data takes time and it is impossible to predict questions about standards for which answers will be needed in 10 or 20 years' time. Consequently, Forintek has maintained a comprehensive field-testing program covering a wide range of commodities, wood species, preservatives and treatment methods. The reports in this compilation cover decking, finger-jointed lumber above ground, shakes, millwork, fence posts, lumber in a termite area and needle-incised lumber in an accelerated ground contact test.
Softwoods - Preservatives
Glued joints - Finger - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Penetration
Preservation - Durability
Decking - Preservation
Shingles - Preservation
Thuja plicata - Shingles
Shingles - Durability
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Posts - Preservation
Preservation - Incising - Tests
Picea - Preservation
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Tests
Termites - Control
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The economics of utilizing decadent interior cedar and hemlock

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub43289
Author
Sinclair, A.W.J.
Date
1984
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Sinclair, A.W.J.
Date
1984
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
36 p
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Thuja plicata
Utilization
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine harvesting and processing methods that could economically utilize the stands of decadent cedar- hemlock in the interior of British Columbia. At present, existing surpluses or lack of demand for the main end products of these stands mean that they are unprofitable to harvest. Until these conditions change or harvesting modifications and incentives are introduced, it will continue to be uneconomical to harvest the stands. Recommendations are made regarding harvesting modifications and incentives.
Decayed wood
Salvage logging
Pulpwood
HOGGED FUEL
Pulp chips
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
COSTS
Documents
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The effect of plicatic acid on fungal inhibition by beta-thujaplicin

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41376
Author
Stirling, Rod
Date
May 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Stirling, Rod
Date
May 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja
Wood decay
Thuja plicata
Resistance
Growth
Acid
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 3807
W-2416
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The natural durability of western red cedar cannot be entirely explained by the presence of the thujaplicins – the only extractives identified with significant direct fungal toxicity. However, other extractives may contribute to the natural durability of western red cedar through interactions with the thujaplicins. Plicatic acid is the most abundant extractive in western red cedar and it is also a strong radical scavenger and metal chelator. To identify any interactions between plicatic acid and beta-thujaplicin, the effect of plicatic acid on the inhibition of fungal growth by beta-thujaplicin was determined using a micro-bioassay. Increased fungal growth was observed in some samples treated with plicatic acid. However, in most samples plicatic acid did not affect the ability of beta-thujaplicin to inhibit the growth of decay fungi in this agar-based bioassay.
Thuja plicata - Decay resistance
Thuja plicata - Extractives
Thujaplicins
Thuja plicata - Durability
Plicatic acids
Fungi - Growth - Tests
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The effects of various coatings on western redcedar extractive retention

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41342
Author
Stirling, Rod
Morse, B.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn).” Wood Science and Technology. 22(1): 73-80. 9 of 10
Author
Stirling, Rod
Morse, B.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja plicata
Research
Preservation
Series Number
W-2252
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A variety of extractives are believed to be responsible for the natural durability in western redcedar (WRC) and these can be lost through biological detoxification or leaching. A variety of clear coatings were applied to WRC samples and artificially weathered with UV and water spray to test their ability to prevent the loss of extractives through leaching. Significant extractive loss occurred in the top millimetre of the weathered samples. Although extractive loss was significant in all samples, two finishes were able to provide some degree of protection: a waterborne polyurethane varnish and a water-based film-former with an alkyd varnish primer.
Extractives - Research
Thuja plicata - Preservation
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55 records – page 1 of 6.