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Assessment of various composite floating flooring constructions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5029
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 1999
Edition
41872
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 1999
Edition
41872
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
E-3274
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
During the last decades, Engineered Wood Flooring and Laminated Flooring experienced dramatic increase in demand from consumers in Europe and Asia, and those two products have taken large market share to the traditional hardwood strip flooring and to other floor covering material like textile, vinyl, etc. In North America, these new multi-layer parquets are just taking off, in 1997, Engineered Wood Flooring share of hardwood flooring was 34% and growing fast. This compares with a market share of 67% in Europe. There appears to be much room for growth in North America. The rapid increase of hardwood flooring products in the world in recent years associated with the decrease of available hardwood raw material made the multi-layer and laminated flooring products interesting alternatives for the hardwood flooring industry. Canada is an important supplier of the hardwood raw material for the European production of both hardwood and EW Floorings. Since some volumes of EWF production from Europe are exported to North America, we do not see any reason why they should not be manufactured in Canada with a competitive advantage. The window of opportunity is there to be exploited. High Pressure Laminate flooring, a composite product made of High Density Fiberboard (HDF) overlaid by coated paper and presenting a very high-resistance surface finish, is also growing very fast in the U.S. The focus was less on this product in this report since contrarily to EWF, HPL flooring is already being produced in Canada. Also a high capacity for manufacturing this product is currently being built in S-E Asia and in China and we know these countries are low-cost producers, very hard to compete with. Standards and methods for testing such products were reviewed. It was observed that the European market is very much standard driven, German standards leading the way in that respect. North American are more driven by "lifetime limited warranties”, although some voluntary standards have been defined by the industry. In any case, all testing methods that were observed in these standards can be performed in Forintek materials testing laboratories. The main problems associated with such products are certainly their negative reaction to variation of moisture content. In this report, methods for predicting those reactions were elaborated in terms of quality of construction and performance. More specifically, testing methods were defined, tried and found to be effective to test surface planeity, gap formation associated with shrinkage and cupping. A process quality control method was also proposed to help eventual producers to control their gluing process. Certainly more research needs to be done to find the best parameters in terms of products and methods of production to develop high quality products that consumers will like to use in their home. Additional research is also required in order to find which backing and core materials could provide the future Canadian EWF industry a sustainable competitive advantage.
Engineered wood floors
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Consumer visual evaluation of Canadian wood species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37612
Author
Fell, David
Date
March 2002
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Fell, David
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2002
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
110 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Materials
Furniture
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service Value-Added Report;3282
W-1859
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This project sought to evaluate the consumer acceptability of some of the lesser-used Canadian wood species with respect to value-added applications. Based on the recommendations of project liaisons across the country eleven species were chosen for the study. Of these there were four hardwoods and seven softwoods. Within this group of species some special topics such as old and second growth differences and blue-stained wood were addressed. In addition to the eleven “lesser used” species two “industry standard” species were included in the study to provide a benchmark. Data was collected at the Toronto and Vancouver fall home shows. A booth was set up to display samples of each of the wood species. Consumers were asked to fill out a five to ten minute survey which asked which samples were most attractive, which best fit a set of ten descriptors, and which they would like to see used for a series of furniture and interior finish applications. In addition, information was collected on product purchase intentions and respondent demographics. A total of 1031 usable surveys were competed over the fours days of the Toronto show and the four days of the Vancouver show. Furniture was more common than interior finish with respect to recent purchases. However, interior finish items were the top planned purchases. Of all products in the survey wood floors were the top product in terms of future purchase intentions. As expected colour and grain are the most important attributes consumers consider when evaluating the look of wood. The top descriptors were warm and classic. However it is interesting that the lower ranked descriptors of modern and cool saw the greatest differences based on demographic segments. Demographics played a major role in species selection. There was a marked urban / suburban split in the selection of wood species. Urban respondents selected a wider range of species and were looking for looks beyond just warm and classic. Suburban respondents tended to choose red toned species with a warm or classic look. With respect to gender, women generally gravitated to one or two species while men’s species choices were more diverse. From a provincial perspective Ontario respondents chose more red toned woods while BC respondents chose lighter woods for some applications. Species Overview White birch The flat grain profile of white birch was one of the top selections of respondents in this study. The red tone of white birch heartwood is viewed as warm, one of the highest ranked attributes respondents were seeking. While other hardwoods finished above white birch for furniture it was generally among the top choices. The strongest result for white birch was in floor applications. Red alder Red alder was noted by respondents for its classic look. It was often chosen for diningroom and livingroom applications where a classic look is desired. Red alder was also chosen quite for kitchen cabinet applications. Red alder finished much stronger than industry standards, and was chosen over red oak for flooring. Broadleaf maple Broadleaf maple was the top hardwood species in the study. It is also only the species in the study where edge grain was consistently chosen over flat grain. The edge grain was viewed as both classic and warm. Application opportunities are good for all furniture and for flooring. In the flat profile broadleaf maple was viewed as more neutral. Overall, it was a popular species in both profiles. Trembling aspen Trembling aspen was chosen consistently as the least attractive species in the study. This was due to its very bright colour, not its grain. This said there are some opportunities for aspen. It was generally viewed to have a modern and cool look. This look was popular with younger urban respondents. Kitchen cabinets were the best application prospect for aspen. Amabilis fir No notable results, positive or negative, emerged for amabilis fir. Douglas fir (Old, Second) Second growth Douglas fir was a popular sample set in the study. Flat grain was viewed as warm, but not classic. Overall, it was viewed to be in the top half of the samples as most attractive. Edge grain second growth Douglas fir on the other hand was highly cited as least attractive. This was due to its very pronounced grain. When both flat and edge grain appeared in the same survey the flat grain was viewed as most attractive of all samples and the edge grain was viewed as least attractive. There is a niche for edge grain however. It was viewed as modern, distinctive, and to a lesser extent exclusive. It was more popular with men and with Ontario respondents. Western hemlock (Old, Second) Old growth hemlock in the flat profile showed strongly in the study. Its erratic grain pattern was viewed as an exclusive and sometimes natural look. It was generally chosen for use in cabinets and floors. Bedroom furniture is the best furniture prospect. Lodgepole pine (clear, major blue stain, minor blue stain) Lodgepole pine generally did not register as an attractive or non-attractive species. Edge grain lodgepole pine was seen to have a natural look. Blue-stained samples were viewed to be very unattractive in general. Some respondents did chose these samples for a cool, natural, and distinctive look. The sample with mild blue stain was a surprise choice for bedroom furniture. Western larch This is the top softwood species in the study. Western larch was viewed as both warm and classic for its deep red tone. In the survey setup with two industry standards western larch was the clear favourite for most attractive. It was chosen over red oak for flooring. Western larch was strong for all furniture applications and for flooring. Subalpine fir Subalpine fir was a surprisingly popular species. In the flat grain profile it was popular for its gradual transition for earlywood to latewood, giving it a clean and natural look. Bedroom furniture is the best prospect for subalpine fir. Tamarack Due to a sample with significant defects no clear conclusions can be made about tamarack. Red oak Red oak was noted for its classic look. It surprisingly was not seen to be a warm species. The application where it faired well against the other species was floors, a traditional market for red oak. Sugar maple Sugar maple was viewed as modern and cool, the two least important attributes. It is interesting that it did finish strong for kitchen cabinets, a current strong market for the species in new homes and renovations. Applications Furniture In general, respondents were seeking a warm look for furniture. For diningroom and to a lesser extent livingroom furniture respondents also looked for a classic look. In bedrooms there were some respondents who chose a lighter natural look. Interior finish Of all application looked at in this study, kitchen cabinets saw respondents being most adventuresome. Though a warm look still dominated, a good portion of respondents chose lighter cabinets, and cabinets with distinct grain patterns. For wood floors respondents usually chose species with warm red tones and soft grain patterns. Wood moldings did not generate any significant trends.
Canadian woods
Furniture - Materials used
Wood flooring - Materials used
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Controlling low-frequency impact noise induced by footsteps in wood floors

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39348
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
April 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 13
201002842
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The number of occupant complaints received about annoying low-frequency footstep impact sound transmission through wood floor-ceiling assemblies has been increasing in proportion with the increase in the number of multi-family wood buildings being recently built. Little work has been done to develop solutions to control low-frequency footstep impact sound transmission. There are no code provisions nor are there any sound solutions in the codes. Current construction practices are based on a trial and error approach. This two-year project was conducted to remove this barrier and successfully expand the use of wood in the multi-family and mid- to high-rise building markets. The key objective was to build a framework for the development of thorough solutions to control low-frequency footstep sound transmission through wood floor-ceiling assemblies. Field acoustic tests and case studies were conducted in collaboration with acoustics researchers, builders, and producers of wood building components. This study found that: 1. With proper design of the base wood-joisted floors and sound details of the ceiling:
with no topping on the floor, the floor-ceiling assembly did not provide sufficient impact sound insulation for low- to high-frequency sound components;
use of a 13-mm thick wood composite topping did not ensure satisfactory impact sound insulation;
use of a 38-mm thick concrete topping without a proper insulation layer to float the topping did not ensure satisfactory impact sound insulation;
use of a topping system having a mass over 20 kg/m2 and composed of composite panels and an insulation layer with proper thickness achieved satisfactory impact sound insulation. 2. Proper design of the base wood-joisted floors was achieved by the correct combination of floor mass and stiffness. The heaviest wood-joisted floors did not necessarily ensure satisfactory impact insulation. 3. Proper sound ceiling details were found to be achieved through:
use of two layers of gypsum board;
use of sound-absorption materials filling at least 50% of the cavity;
installation of resilient channels to the bottom of the joists through an acoustic anchoring system; this resulted in a much better impact sound insulation than directly attaching the resilient channels to the bottom of the joists. A four-task research plan was developed to thoroughly address the issue of poor low-frequency footstep impact insulation of current lightweight wood floor-ceiling assemblies and to correct prejudice against wood. The tasks included: 1) fundamental work to develop code provisions; 2) expansion of FPInnovations’ material testing laboratory to include tests that characterize the acoustic properties of materials; 3) development of control strategies; and 4) implementation. The laboratory acoustic research facility built includes a mock-up field floor-ceiling assembly with adjustable span and room height, a testing system and building acoustic-simulation software. It is concluded that with proper design of the base wood floor structure and the use of the right topping and sound ceiling details, a lightweight wood floor-ceiling assembly can achieve satisfactory impact sound insulation. As planned, solutions will be developed in the next phase of this project.
Noise - Control
Wood Floors
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Engineered wood flooring constructions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42010
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Blanchet, P.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Blanchet, P.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
E-3514
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring (EWF) are gaining in popularity since they appeared in Europe in the 70’s. In 1999, two third of the wood parquet installed in Europe was EWF. For the same year, a third of the wood parquet flooring installed in USA was EWF. Even if EWF captured this important market share, the knowledge on the product and its behaviour is very limited. Hygrometric condition variations, which happen in transition from summer to winter conditions in North America can induce hygromecanical deformation and permanent fatigue in the composite material which can result in a decrease of the mechanical performance of the glue line. The objectives of this study were to support the development of strong Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring industries in Canada, to increase the knowledge on engineered wood parquet, to develop engineered wood parquet flooring made with Canadian wood products components and to become competitive in performance with actual products in the market. Methodology has been developed to determine the performance of EWF and their glue line. In accordance with the manufacturing parameter in this study, the best construction was made of a 4 mm sugar maple surface layer, a 8 mm heart of white birch core layer and a 2 mm yellow birch veneer as backing layer. Varnish appears to play an important role in the performance of EWF by reducing the cupping deformation by 50 percent. Finally, the best adhesive to bond the EWF layers was found to be a polyurethane adhesive for the stability and strength of its glue line following ageing cycles.
Wood flooring
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Performance tests on engineered wood floors in three single family building under construction at the CPIBQ

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41859
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Tardif, Y.G.
Desjardins, Richard
Date
January 1998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Tardif, Y.G.
Desjardins, Richard
Date
January 1998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Performance
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood Floors
Performance
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Program plan for development of dynamic performance criteria for wood-based floors in commercial buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38655
Author
Onysko, D.M.
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 1994
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Onysko, D.M.
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 1994
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 6a
3110K402
E-1885
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
This report describes a program plan required to develop dynamic performance criteria for the design of wood-based floors in commercial occupancies. The need for serviceability criteria for wood joist floor systems in residential settings had long been recognized. This recognition led to the adoption of new span tables for Part 9 of the 1990 National Building Code which indirectly limited vibration amplitude and frequency (NBCC 1990) based on the research conducted and the Eastern Laboratory of the Canadian Forestry Service (now Forintek Canada Corp.). The introduction of these additional criteria into Part 9 of the NBCC to limit dynamic effects was the beginning of a true systems approach to floor design. It is now in the best interest of the wood industry to extend the systems approach to the design of wood-based floors in commercial occupancies, where the floors are likely to use engineered type wood products rather than solid sawn lumber, and combined with concrete toppings of various types. No dynamic performance criteria can be applied to these applications, in part because the basic work required to instill confidence in any proposed criteria has not been done. Dynamic performance criteria are now needed to serve the interest of the wood industry and to provide reliable guidance to the design professionals.
Wood Floors - Commercial Development
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Serviceability design criteria for commercial and multi-family floors

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41948
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2000
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2000
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 4
E-3420
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood Floors - Commercial Development
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Serviceability design criteria for commercial and multi-family floors

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41838
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
May 1998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
May 1998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service no. 3
E-3122
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood Floors - Commercial Development
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Serviceability design criteria for commercial and multi-family floors (report no. 2)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41801
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 1997
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 1997
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 4
E-3011
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood Floors - Commercial Development
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Étude sur la prévention des microfissures en surface des lames de plancher

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39876
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Contributor
Canadian Forest Services
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
24 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood flooring
Finishing
Series Number
Technologies transformatives
Project no. 301007995
E-4900
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Engineered wood floors
FINISHING
Crack formations
Abstract
Des manufacturiers de lames de plancher font souvent face à un problème de microfissures en surface du bois. Ces microfissures sont généralement détectées suite à l’application du produit de finition en usine et même, plus souvent, suite à la livraison et à l’installation des lames de plancher chez le client. Un essai de finition de lames de plancher en bois d’érable, réalisé en 2012, avait démontré l’effet bénéfique d’un délai de refroidissement à l’air libre des lames avant emballage sur l’apparition de nouvelles gerces en surface. Dans le présent projet, un essai de finition de lames de plancher en usine a été réalisé selon différents scénarios impliquant à nouveau un refroidissement des lames avant leur mise en boîte. La répétition de cet essai ne s’est pas avérée aussi concluante, car un nombre limité de nouvelles gerces ont été observées lors du procédé conventionnel de finition. Toutefois, certains facteurs peuvent expliquer en partie les résultats obtenus ici dont un camouflage accru des gerces en surface lors de la finition des lames et aussi, une humidité relative (HR) supérieure de l’air à l’intérieur des boîtes en cours d’entreposage des lames. Néanmoins, l’essai de finition réalisé dans le présent projet a démontré à nouveau l’absence de nouvelles gerces en surface observées suite aux étapes de finition et d’entreposage en impliquant une période de refroidissement à l’air du matériel avant la mise en boîtes des lames. Ce même résultat fut observé lors de l’essai précédent de 2012. L’essai de finition de lames de plancher réalisé dans le cadre de ce projet a démontré que des gerces camouflées à l’étape de la finition peuvent réapparaître plus tard. En effet, des proportions de gerces camouflées variant de 18 à 26% selon les scénarios de l’essai sont réapparues suite à des cycles en chambres de conditionnement. Le refroidissement des lames avant la mise en boîte n’a pas eu d’effet favorable sur ce phénomène. Des systèmes de cuisson à moindre chaleur ont été développés comme, par exemple, les systèmes UV DEL et UV pulsé. Les informations recueillies sur Internet et auprès des manufacturiers de ces systèmes témoignent d’un plus faible transfert de chaleur vers le substrat en cours de finition. Toutefois, nos recherches ont démontré la faible disponibilité actuelle de ces systèmes pour la finition du bois. Des manufacturiers de ligne de finition comme Cefla North America ont reconnu la problématique possible des hautes températures atteintes en surface de différents substrats en cours de finition. Ce manufacturier offre aujourd’hui des options telles que les lentilles au quartz pouvant être ajoutées aux lampes UV conventionnelles afin de réduire le transfert de chaleur. L’utilisation des finitions actuelles avec l’utilisation de ces options, sans modifications requises, demeure toutefois à être validée.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.