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Advanced methods of encapsulation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6091
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Roy-Poirier, A.
Date
November 2016
Edition
44220
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
................................................................... 37 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. NBCC Component Additive Method for wood-frame assemblies [1
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Roy-Poirier, A.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
November 2016
Edition
44220
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
66 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Wood frame
Design
Fire
Series Number
W-3261
Language
English
Abstract
Neither the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) [1], nor any provincial code, such as the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC) [2], currently provide “acceptable solutions” to permit the construction of tall wood buildings, that is buildings of 7 stories and above. British Columbia, however, was the first province in Canada to allow mid-rise (5/6 storey) wood construction and other provinces have since followed. As more mid-rise wood buildings are erected, their benefits are becoming apparent to the industry, and therefore they are gaining popularity and becoming more desirable. Forest product research has now begun to shift towards more substantial buildings, particularly in terms of height. High-rise buildings, typically taller than 6 storeys, are currently required to achieve 2 h fire resistance ratings (FRR) for floors and other structural elements, and need to be of non-combustible construction, as per the “acceptable solutions” of Division B of the NBCC [1]. In order for a tall wood building to be approved, it must follow an “alternative solution” approach, which requires demonstrating that the design provides an equivalent or greater level of safety as compared to an accepted solution using non-combustible construction. One method to achieve this level of safety is by ‘encapsulating’ the assembly to provide additional protection before wood elements become involved in the fire, as intended by the Code objectives and functional statements (i.e., prolong the time before the wood elements potentially start to char and their structural capacity is affected). It is also necessary to demonstrate that the assembly, in particular the interior finishes, conform to any necessary flame spread requirements. The Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada [3] recommends designing a tall wood building so that it is code-conforming in all respects, except that it employs mass timber construction. The guide presents various encapsulation methods, from full encapsulation of all wood elements to partial protection of select elements. National Research Council Canada (NRC), FPInnovations, and the Canadian Wood Council (CWC) began specifically investigating encapsulation techniques during their Mid-Rise Wood Buildings Consortium research project, and demonstrated that direct applied gypsum board, cement board and gypsum-concrete can delay the effects of fire on a wood substrate [4]. There is extensive data on the use of gypsum board as a means of encapsulation for wood-frame assemblies and cold-formed steel assemblies. However, tall wood buildings are more likely to employ mass timber elements due to higher load conditions, requirements for longer fire resistance ratings, as well as other factors. There is little knowledge currently available related to using gypsum board directly applied to mass timber, or in other configurations, for fire protection. Testing performed to date has been limited to direct applied Type X gypsum board using standard screw spacing, and showed promising results [5, 6, 7]. This represents an opportunity for other configurations that might provide enhanced protection of wood elements to be investigated. Being able to provide equivalent fire performance of assemblies between non-combustible and combustible construction will thus improve the competiveness of tall timber buildings by providing additional options for designers.
Revision of March 2015 edition
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Behaviour and reliability of wood-frame systems under axial loads exposed to fire

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5084
Author
Van Zeeland, I.
Date
March 2000
Edition
41933
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Van Zeeland, I.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2000
Edition
41933
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Timber
Systems
Resistance
Research
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 09
E-3399
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Building construction - Fire research
Structural Timber - Fire Resistance
Wood-frame systems - Fire resistance
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Controlling wind-induced vibrations in tall wood frame buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39349
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
New Construction Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Wind loads
Wind
Vibration
Loads
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 28
201002844
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
It is not surprising to see a rapid growth in the demand for mid- to high-rise buildings. Traditionally, these types of buildings have been dominated by steel and concrete. This trend creates a great opportunity for wood to expand its traditional single and low-rise multi-family building market to the growing mid- to high-rise building market. The significance and importance of wood construction to environmental conservation and the Canadian economy has been recognized by governments, the building industry, architects, design engineers, builders, and clients. It is expected that more and more tall wood frame buildings of 6- to 8-storeys (or taller) will be constructed in Canada. Before we can push for use of wood in such applications, however, several barriers to wood’s success in its traditional and potential market places have to be removed. Lack of knowledge of the dynamic properties of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings and their responses to wind, and absence of current guidelines for wind vibration design of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings are examples of such barriers. This pilot study was conducted to build a framework for the development of design and construction solutions for controlling wind-induced vibration of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood frame buildings, to ensure satisfactory vibration performance during high winds. A literature review and ambient vibration tests (AVT) on existing two- to six-storey wood frame buildings were conducted to establish a database of the vibration properties of wood frame buildings. Monitoring the vibration response to wind of a six-storey wood frame building was initiated. Collaboration with McGill University was also established to verify the AVT results. The measured fundamental natural frequencies of the wood-frame building were used to verify the NBCC equations to estimate the building’s fundamental natural frequencies. Collaboration with Tongji University was established to explore the potential use of the finite element commercial software Ansys, for simulation of vibration performance of wood frame buildings. It is concluded that this project achieved its objectives, i.e. built a framework for the development of a design guide for controlling wind-induced vibrations of mid- to high-rise wood frame buildings. The framework includes the AVT system, software and protocol, a building vibration monitoring system and protocol, computer simulation tool, a database of natural frequencies and damping ratios of wood frame buildings, and the expertise for conducting AVT, building monitoring, and computer simulation. Pilot study results confirmed that AVT and computer simulation are useful, and appropriate tools for the development of techniques and a design guide for controlling wood frame building vibrations in wind. It is recommended that current NBCC equations using building height as a variable to estimate the building’s fundamental natural frequency be used to predict the fundamental natural frequencies of wood-frame buildings, until a better calculation methodology is developed. More field data of the fundamental natural frequencies measured on mid- to high-rise wood frame or hybrid wood buildings are needed to further verify the NBCC equations, or to develop more suitable equations for wood buildings.
Wind loads
Vibration control
Wood frame buildings
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Design-to-dismantle concept in timber construction : phase 1

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42425
Author
Munoz, W.
Mohammad, M.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Munoz, W.
Mohammad, M.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Sample
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 22
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Design for Deconstruction (DFD) is one of the most important strategies towards the reduction of the environmental burden of the construction environment. A better and deeper understanding of the DFD role and interrelationships involved in DFD should help this technique become an important consideration in any construction project. This is an exploratory study focused on review of current available state-of-the art information on design to dismantle concept and exploring potential applicability to wood-based assemblies and systems. In Canada, few steps have been taken towards developing some guidelines and strategies for design for deconstruction and adaptability in buildings. However the process seems to have stopped after the publication of CSA guidelines in 2006 with no further activities planned. It has been demonstrated that DFD concepts could be applicable to most of the constructions methods where wood and wood-based products are used. Aside from the analysis that needs to be done on accessibility, labelling, connections and layering, a special attention is required on the coordination to be created between the owners, architects, designers and builders. More work is needed to well-identify what are the specific problems/constraints related to each construction method (light wood-framed, post and beam, X-lam and any hybrid combination between them or even with concrete or steel). Finally, it will be necessary to conduct a market study where it will be possible to quantify and identify professionals, developers and practisers that are most interested in adopting these concepts for the development of greener building designs.
Wood-frame buildings
Building construction - Design
Environmental Issues
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Development of fire endurance models for wood stud walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38720
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
for the prediction of the fire resistance of wood-frame assemblies. * 1.2 1994/95 Goals To incorporate AF&PA’s
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood studs
Wood frame
Wood
Walls
Testing
Studs
Series Number
Forestry Canada Contract no. 4Y002-2-0306/01-SS
3165K515
E-2219
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Fire Endurance Models
Wood Frame Walls - Fire Tests
Wood Stud Walls - Fire Testing - Models
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Development of fire endurance models for wood stud walls : progress report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38447
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
April 1992
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
) identified the development of fire endurance models for wood-frame assemblies as a high priority. The long
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
April 1992
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood studs
Wood frame
Wood
Walls
Testing
Studs
Series Number
Forestry Canada Contract no. 4Y002-1-0389/01-SS
3165K515
E-1300
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Fire Endurance Models
Wood Frame Walls - Fire Tests
Wood Stud Walls - Fire Testing - Models
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Development of heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42239
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
as such members remain in good standing. Development of Heat-transfer Models for Wood-frame Assemblies
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
New Construction Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No 9
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Computer fire modelling is an important high-tech tool in fire safety engineering and fire science. The movement towards objective-based building codes means that these models will find application in performance-based fire-safety design of wood structures. Accordingly for more than a decade, fire researchers at Forintek strove to develop heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies exposed to fire. Then, in 2001 Forintek elected to outsource all future development of these models. This project provides funding, direction and oversight for the outside development of these design tools. Canadian officials identified construction of wood-frame buildings in Japan as an important market priority. To aid them in their endeavours, in 2002-2003 Forintek contracted the development of a heat transfer model for exterior walls constructed with exterior expanded polystyrene-foam (EPS) insulation and ceramic-siding rains screens when subjected to standard fire exposures on the outside face. In 2003-2004 Forintek contracted to have further refinements made to that heat transfer model so that users would have the option of selecting either exterior EPS insulation or exterior semi-rigid glass-fibre insulation panels. That work was completed and comparisons between the model’s predictions and the results of full-scale tests show good agreement. A paper describing Forintek’s heat transfer model for exterior walls with exterior insulation and non-combustible rain-screens, and comparisons between the model’s predicted outcomes and the results of full-scale fire tests on such assemblies will be presented later this year at the 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering. In recent years Japanese building regulations were revised to permit construction of wood-frame (combustible) buildings within the high-density urban centres (Fire Protection Zones) of their larger cities if the major loadbearing elements in those buildings met specific requirements for fireproof construction. Those requirements have been dubbed the “one-plus-three” test requirements because for “low-rise” wood-frame apartment buildings and large houses they include exhibiting one-hour of fire-resistance when tested in accordance with ISO 834, and continued fire resistance without structural collapse when the test assembly is maintained under structural load with the fire-test furnace in-place against the side of the assembly for an additional three hours. Again, to assist in promoting markets for Canadian wood products in Japan, in 2003-2004 Forintek commenced modifying its WALL2D heat transfer model so that it would be capable of predicting the thermal response of walls subjected to the fire (thermal) exposures specified in Japan’s one-plus-three test method, parametric, and “real” fire scenarios. In preparation for that work, a Forintek scientist traveled to Japan to gather more information about the “one-plus-three” testing procedures. Later, Forintek contracted the service of Dr H. Takeda to travel to Japan to obtain thermo-physical property data for the gypsum board products commonly used in construction of wood buildings complying with Japanese specifications for fireproof construction. The information obtained from these two trips indicated that the successful completion of revisions to the WALL2D model would be much more difficult and require much more time than had originally been anticipated. With the support of Forintek, one of the students enrolled at Carleton University, Steven Craft, chose as the topic for his PhD thesis the reliability of wood-frame floors in fire. One of the tasks that he is carrying out for his thesis is the development of a heat transfer model for floor assemblies constructed with solid-wood joists. Dr Hadjisophocleous, the Chair in Fire Safety Engineering at the university, and Craft’s thesis advisor, submitted a proposal to Materials Manufacturing Ontario (MMO) which would leverage Forintek’s financial support to Craft and enable Hadjisophocleous to build an entire research program around Craft’s thesis research. MMO accepted the proposal. One of the biggest problems encountered in performance-base fire-safety design of large commercial structures is selecting the proper design or “realistic” fire scenario to be used when modeling fire resistance. For large commercial building with atria, establishing the required fire exposures on the boundaries of the atria from a fire within those tall, large open spaces is a particularly difficult issue. Therefore, in 2003, fire researchers in Australia submitted a proposal to the Australian Research Council (ARC) to study this subject. Forintek will provide some support for the work. All of these activities will continue in 2004-2005.
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
Documents
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Development of heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies : 2002-2003 progress

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42193
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
as such members remain in good standing. Development of Heat-transfer Models for Wood-frame Assemblies
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
New Construction Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
CFS No 9
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Computer fire modelling is one of the most important high-tech tools in fire safety engineering and fire science. The movement towards objective-based building codes means that these models will be essential tools for performance-based fire-safety design of wood structures. Accordingly for more than a decade, fire researchers at Forintek have been striving to develop heat-transfer models (HT models) for wood-frame assemblies exposed to fire. Then, in 2001 Forintek elected to outsource all future development of these models. This project provides funding, direction and oversight for the outside development of these design tools. Because both the Canadian government and the wood industry had identified construction of wood-frame buildings in Japan as a market priority, and the fire performance of exterior wood-frame walls with exterior foam-plastic insulation and ceramic-siding rain screens, a popular Japanese housing design, as one of their biggest hurdles in capturing a larger share of that market, in 2002-2003, efforts were focused on development of a model to predict heat transfer through that specific type of assembly. Using WALL2D, Forintek’s HT model for wood-frame walls with gypsum board on both sides as the foundation, Nortak Software Ltd. was contracted to complete Forintek’s development of a model to predict heat transfer through wood-frame exterior walls subjected on the exterior face to ISO 834 fire exposures. While Forintek researchers knew that the Japan Testing Center for Construction Materials (JTCCM) in Tokyo had carried out fire tests on exterior wood-frame walls with expanded-polystyrene (EPS) exterior insulation and ceramic-siding rain screens, little was known about the outcome of those tests, the pass/fail criteria used in assessing such assemblies, and the problems, if any, that were encountered in carrying out the tests. Also, in ISO 834 tests, the fire gases within test furnaces are under a small positive pressure. The ability, if any, of those furnace pressures to drive hot fire gases through the ventilation/drainage holes in the rain screen and directly into the cavities behind the ceramic siding, and the direction of that gas flow within the cavities were completely unknown. Of greater significance and equal uncertainty was the effect that those conditions might have on the EPS insulation backing upon the cavities. Also, there was a dearth of information in Canada about design and construction practices followed in Japan for these types of walls. Another concern for Forintek was our ability to obtain test data for validation of the HT model once it had been developed. Finally, overriding all other concerns was the willingness of Japanese testing organizations, regulatory officials, manufacturers of building materials, and builders to accept the use of models to predict the fire performance of these types of assemblies. Therefore, Forintek contracted the service of Dr. Hisahiro Takeda to travel to the JTCCM to gather intelligence answering each of these concerns. Development of Foritnek’s HT model for exterior walls with exterior EPS insulation and ceramic-siding rains screens will be completed by September 2003. Forintek will then aid Canadian government and industry officials in exporting Canadian housing technology and Canadian building products to Japan by working with officials at NRCan CANMET in selecting optimum designs for exterior wall assemblies to be used in construction of energy efficient houses in Japan. At the same time, Forintek will work with other industry and governmental officials to promote and market Canadian housing technology and Canadian building products in China, Taiwan and Korea by using the model to demonstrate the fire resistance of exterior wood-frame walls. Finally, Forintek will attempt to work with researchers at the JTCCM to market the model in Japan.
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
Documents
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Development of heat transfer models for wood-frame assemblies : 2004-2005 progress

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42307
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Report 2004/05 9 Development of Heat Transfer Models for Wood-frame Assemblies 2004-2005 Progress
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
New Construction Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 9
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
Documents
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Development of heat transfer models for wood-frame assemblies : progress in 2005-2006

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38932
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Development of Heat Transfer Models for Wood-Frame Assemblies - Progress in 2005-2006
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
New Construction Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transfer
Heat transfer
Heat
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 9
3636
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Computer fire modelling is an important high-tech tool in fire safety engineering and fire science. The transition to objective-based building codes means that these models will find application in performance-based fire-safety design of wood structures. Accordingly for more than a decade, fire researchers at Forintek strove to develop heat-transfer models for wood-frame assemblies exposed to fire. Dubbed WALL2D, the model developed by Forintek’s researchers predicts heat transfer through simple non-bearing wood-stud walls filled with thermal/acoustical insulation in the stud cavities and gypsum board on the two faces. Then, in 2001 Forintek elected to outsource all future development of these models. This project provides funding, direction and oversight for the outside development of these design tools. A paper by H. Takeda and L.R. Richardson entitled A Heat Transfer Model to Simulate Japan's 1+3 Fire Endurance Test for Wood-Framed Wall Assemblies was presented at the IAWPS 2005 Conference organized by the Japan Wood Research Society (JWRS) and the International Association of Wood Products Societies (IAWPS). A paper by H. Takeda and L.R. Richardson entitled A Model to Simulate Japan’s ‘1 + 3’ Fire Endurance Test was submitted for presentation at the 31st International Symposium on Combustion (2006) in Heidelberg, Germany on August 6-11, 2006. A Japanese-language paper by H. Takeda roughly translated as Wood-Frame Wall Fire Resistance Simulation Model was published in Wood Industry 60(3)134-137. The Journal is published by the Wood Technological Association of Japan. Through the efforts of researchers and students at Carleton University, and with funding assistance from the Ontario Centres of Excellence, development of computer models to predict the response of wood-frame floor assemblies to fire attack, including both the thermal and the structural response of such assemblies, and models to predict the probability of failure of wood-frame building elements during fire continued. As part of his PhD studies, S. Craft undertook a directed studies project which investigated the behaviour of gypsum board and wood at elevated temperatures. His goal was the development of sub-models which better address the kinetics of calcination of gypsum board and the pyrolysis of wood. To more effectively model heat transfer though wood and gypsum board, Forintek established a collaborative contract with the material testing division of the National Research Council Canada (NRC) to provide additional thermal analysis test data (differential thermal analysis {DTA}; thermal-gravimetric and analysis {TGA}; and differential scanning calorimetry {DSC}) for gypsum board and spruce wood. Based upon his analysis of the data, Craft submitted a Directed Studies Report to Carleton University entitled Modelling the Thermal Degradation of Gypsum Board and Wood Using TGA. A poster presentation by J.R. Mehaffey, S. Craft, G. Hadjisophocleous and B. Isgor entitled Fire Response of Gypsum Board and Wood Framing was given at the 8th International Symposium sponsored by the International Association of Fire Safety Science. Finally, a paper by S. Craft, G. Hadjisophocleous, B. Isgor and J. Mehaffey entitled Predicting the Fire Resistance of Light-Frame Wood Floor Assemblies was submitted and has been accepted for presentation at the 4th International Workshop on Structures in Fire (SiF’06) on May 10-12, 2006 at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. In August 2005, Forintek established an agreement with SwRI whereby researchers at SwRI would assess the feasibility of utilizing commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) programs to model wood members (e.g. heavy-timber beams and columns) exposed to fire conditions. The fire resistance of a glulam beam was modeled in two-dimensions using five different FEA programs commonly used to predict the response of structures exposed to elevated temperature. The output of each model was compared with experimental data for wood beams from tests conducted in 1997 at SwRI. Following the completion of this research, a paper by B. Badders (SwRI) and J.R. Mehaffey and L.R. Richardson (Forintek) entitled Using Commercial FEA Software Packages to Model the Fire Performance of Exposed GLULAM Beams was submitted and has been accepted for presentation at the 4th International Workshop on Structures in Fire (SiF’06) on May 10-12, 2006 at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. While this project officially ended on March 31, 2006, many of the activities underway at that time will continue as components of other Forintek research projects or through the activities of the Carleton University Industrial Research Chair in Fire Safety Engineering.
Wood-frame assemblies
Heat transfer
Models
Documents
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54 records – page 1 of 6.