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Checking in CLT panels : an exploratory study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub2772
Auteur
Casilla, Romulo C.
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Date
December 2011
Édition
39389
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Casilla, Romulo C.
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Date
December 2011
Édition
39389
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
29 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Panels tests
Panels
Laminate product
Building construction
Série
Transformative Technologies # TT1.07
W-2877
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH). The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity. Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
Building construction - Laminated
Laminated products
Panels - Tests
Documents
Moins de détails

Block shear testing of CLT panels : an exploratory study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub2759
Auteur
Casilla, Romulo C.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Lum, Conroy
Date
April 2011
Édition
39375
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Casilla, Romulo C.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Lum, Conroy
Date
April 2011
Édition
39375
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
35 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Timber
Laminate product
Design
Building construction
Série
Transformative Technologies #TT1.07
W-2846
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition. Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels. These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011). Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
Building construction - Design
Cross-laminated timber
Documents
Moins de détails

Delamination testing of CLT panels : an exploratory study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub39330
Auteur
Casilla, Romulo C.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Date
February 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Casilla, Romulo C.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Date
February 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
44 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Timber
Mechanical properties
Laminate product
Gluing
Série
Transformative Technologies # TT1.07
W-2811
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of delamination test using cylindrical core specimens to assess the bond quality of cross laminated timber (CLT) products. A prototype coring drill bit was fabricated to prepare a cylindrical-shaped specimen, the height of which corresponds to the full thickness of the CLT panel. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure, adhesive type, number of plies, and specimen shape on the delamination resistance of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 1 x 6-inch Hem-Fir boards. Examples of three adhesive types were evaluated, which were designated as A, B, and C. The delamination tests used were as described in CAN / CSA O122-06 and EN 302-2. Cylindrical specimen extracted as core was found satisfactory as a test specimen type for use in delamination testing of CLT product. Its efficacy was comparable to that of a square cross-section specimen. The former is recommended as it can be extracted from thicker panels and from any location in the panel. It would also be more convenient to plug the round hole. Adhesive type had a strong effect on delamination resistance based on the two delamination tests used. Adhesive A exhibited the greatest delamination resistance, followed in decreasing order, by adhesives C and B. It should be noted that no effort was made to find the optimum CLT manufacturing parameters for each type of adhesive. Therefore the relative rankings of the adhesives tested may not be representative. However, for the purposes of this study, the different performance levels from the three adhesives are useful in providing insight into how the proposed delamination test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. Pressure used in fabricating the CLT panel showed a strong effect on delamination resistance as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. Delamination resistance decreased with decreasing pressure. The effect of the number of plies in the CLT panel was dependent upon the type of adhesive, and this was probably related to the adhesive’s assembly time characteristic. These results provide support as to the effectiveness of delamination test in assessing the moisture durability of CLT panels. It was able to differentiate the performance in delamination resistance among different types of adhesives, and able to detect the effect of manufacturing parameters such as pressure and increased number of plies in CLT construction. The test procedure described in CAN / CSA O122-06 appears to be reasonable in the delamination resistance assessment of CLT panels for qualification and quality control testing. Based on the results of the study along with some background information and guidelines, delamination requirements for CLT panels are proposed. The permitted delamination values are greater than those currently specified for laminated and fingerjoined lumber products. This is in recognition of the higher bond line stresses when bonded perpendicular laminations (i.e. CLT) are exposed to the delamination wetting and drying cycles, as opposed to parallel laminations (i.e. glulam or fingerjoints).
Cross-laminated timber
Laminated products - Gluing - Strength
Documents
Moins de détails

Fabrication du bois lamellé-croisé (CLT)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub42935
Auteur
Wang, Brad J.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Date
January 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
collé. 3. Construction en bois d’ingénierie. I. Gagnon, Sylvain, 1970- . II. Pirvu, Ciprian, 1968
Auteur
Wang, Brad J.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Date
January 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
70 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Timber
Laminate product
Building construction
Design
Langue
French
Résumé
Le présent chapitre fournit de l’information générale sur la fabrication du CLT qui peut être intéressante pour les concepteurs. Les renseignements contenus dans ce chapitre peuvent également servir de guide aux fabricants de CLT quant au développement de leur cahier de spécifications d'exploitation d'usine. Ce chapitre aborde également les étapes spécifiques du processus de fabrication de CLT et les variables de processus clés qui ont une incidence sur la qualité d’adhésion des lamelles des produits de CLT. On y retrouve également les méthodes proposées pour évaluer la qualité des panneaux.
Documents
Moins de détails

Cross-laminated timber manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub42942
Auteur
Wang, Brad J.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Date
January 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
construction. I. Gagnon, Sylvain, 1970- II. Pirvu, Ciprian, 1968- III. Title: Cross-laminated timber. IV
Auteur
Wang, Brad J.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Date
January 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Timber
Laminate product
Building construction
Design
Langue
English
Résumé
This chapter provides general information about the manufacturing of CLT that may be of interest to the design community. The information contained in this chapter may also provide guidance to CLT manufacturers in the development of their plant operating specification document. Typical steps of the manufacturing process of CLT are described, and key process variables affecting adhesive bond quality of CLT products are discussed. Proposed methods for evaluating panel quality are presented.
Documents
Moins de détails

Duration of load and creep factors for cross-laminated timber panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub42945
Auteur
Pirvu, Ciprian
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
January 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
construction. I. Gagnon, Sylvain, 1970- II. Pirvu, Ciprian, 1968- III. Title: Cross-laminated timber. IV
Auteur
Pirvu, Ciprian
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
January 2011
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
30 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Timber
Laminate product
Building construction
Design
Langue
English
Résumé
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) products are used as load-carrying slab and wall elements in structural systems, thus load duration and creep behaviour are critical characteristics that should be taken into account in design. Given the nature of CLT with orthogonal arrangement of layers and either mechanically fastened with nails or wood dowels, or bonded with structural adhesive, CLT is more prone to time-dependent deformations under load (creep) than other engineered wood products such as glued-laminated timber. Time-dependent behaviour of structural wood products is accounted for in design standards by providing load duration factors to adjust specified strengths. Since the Canadian Standard on Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86-09) does not deal with CLT, it does not provide load duration and service condition factors. Until this can be rectified, two options are proposed for adopters of CLT systems in Canada. These include not only load duration and service factors, but also an approach to accounting for creep in CLT structural elements. The proposed recommendations are in line with the specifications in CSA O86-09 and Canadian National Building Code.
Documents
Moins de détails

State-of-the-art report on fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) utilization in wood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub41302
Auteur
Pirvu, Ciprian
Date
June 2004
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Pirvu, Ciprian
Date
June 2004
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
35 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Materials
Série
W-2073
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
Fibre-reinforced wood systems are light, strong, stiff composites that can efficiently replace larger wood members and can be relied on to provide consistent mechanical properties. This report is an introduction to fibre-reinforced wood systems for members of the Canadian wood products industry. It provides the motivation for reinforcing wood with synthetic fibres, and surveys the choice of materials and their uses. Numerous examples of current applications are discussed to demonstrate the strong and weak points of various approaches and examine the durability and management of fibre-reinforced wood products, as well as to indicate opportunities that exist for the Canadian wood products industry. This report is intended to be a useful reference for the Canadian wood products industry, and assist future developments in structural and non-structural applications of fibre-reinforced wood products.
Composite materials - Durability
Fibres
Board products - Materials used
Documents
Moins de détails

7 notices – page 1 of 1.