A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition.
Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels.
These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011).
Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH).
The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity.
Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
This chapter provides general information about the manufacturing of CLT that may be of interest to the design community. The information contained in this chapter may also provide guidance to CLT manufacturers in the development of their plant operating specification document. Typical steps of the manufacturing process of CLT are described, and key process variables affecting adhesive bond quality of CLT products are discussed. Proposed methods for evaluating panel quality are presented.
Le présent chapitre fournit de l’information générale sur la fabrication du CLT qui peut être intéressante pour les concepteurs. Les renseignements contenus dans ce chapitre peuvent également servir de guide aux fabricants de CLT quant au développement de leur cahier de spécifications d'exploitation d'usine.
Ce chapitre aborde également les étapes spécifiques du processus de fabrication de CLT et les variables de processus clés qui ont une incidence sur la qualité d’adhésion des lamelles des produits de CLT. On y retrouve également les méthodes proposées pour évaluer la qualité des panneaux.
This report describes the building, tested floor and wall assemblies, test methods, and summarizes the test results. The preliminary performance data provides critical feedback on the design of the building for resisting wind-induced vibration and on the floor vibration controlled design. The data can be further used to validate the calculation methods and tools/models of dynamic analysis. Originally confidential to FII, they have provided permission to make the report available.