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Advanced industrialized construction to achieve high building energy efficiency

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub7950
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Date
February 2021
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
BUILDING ENERGY EFFICENCY Jieying Wang, Ph.D., Senior Scientist Buildings are a significant source
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Date
February 2021
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
6 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Building construction
Energy
Thermal properties
Série
WP InfoNote 2021 N. 5
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
Building high energy efficiency has become a must to reduce carbon emission from the built environment and to meet needs of consumers. Industrialized construction provides an effective way to produce highly insulated and airtight building envelopes to achieve superior building performance, such as Net Zero Energy. However, it is important that as other attributes (e.g., seismic, wind, fire, vibration, etc.) are being addressed, further research is needed to develop well rounded building envelope solutions. Meanwhile, improvement may be made in automated production equipment and software to optimize and monetize these solutions.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: analytical models for balloon-type CLT shear walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub52680
Auteur
Chen, Zhiyong
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Popovski, Marjan
Date
July 2018
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Chen, Zhiyong
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Popovski, Marjan
Collaborateur
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
July 2018
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
83 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Cross Laminated Timber
Performance
Building construction
Building materials
Energy
Langue
English
Résumé
Lack of research and design information for the seismic performance of balloon-type CLT shear walls prevents CLT from being used as an acceptable solution to resist seismic loads in balloon-type mass-timber buildings. To quantify the performance of balloon-type CLT structures subjected to lateral loads and create the research background for future code implementation of balloon-type CLT systems in CSA O86 and NBCC, FPInnovations initiated a project to determine the behaviour of balloon-type CLT construction. A series of tests on balloon-type CLT walls and connections used in these walls were conducted. Analytical models were developed based on engineering principles and basic mechanics to predict the deflection and resistance of the balloon-type CLT shear walls. This report covers the work related to development of the analytical models and the tests on balloon-type CLT walls that the models were verified against.
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Advanced Wood-based Solutions for Mid-rise and High-rise Construction: Structural Performance of Post-Tensioned CLT Shear Walls with Energy Dissipators

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub49859
Auteur
Chen, Zhiyong
Popovski, Marjan
Symons, Paul D.
Date
May 2018
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
of Post-Tensioned CLT Shear Walls with Energy Dissipators Date: May 2018 By: Zhiyong Chen, Ph.D., P.Eng
Auteur
Chen, Zhiyong
Popovski, Marjan
Symons, Paul D.
Collaborateur
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
May 2018
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
117 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Cross Laminated Timber
Performance
Building construction
Building materials
Energy
Langue
English
Résumé
The latest developments in seismic design philosophy have been geared towards developing of so called "resilient" or "low damage" innovative structural systems that can reduce damage to the structure while offering the same or higher levels of safety to occupants. One such innovative structural system is the Pres-Lam system that is a wood-hybrid system that utilizes post-tensioned (PT) mass timber components in both rigid-frame and wall-based buildings along with various types of energy disspators. To help implement the Pres-Lam system in Canada and the US, information about the system performance made with North American engineered wood products is needed. That information can later be used to develop design guidelines for the designers for wider acceptance of the system by the design community. Several components influence the performance of the Pres-Lam systems: the load-deformation properties of the engineered wood products under compression, load-deformation and energy dissipation properties of the dissipators used, placement of the dissiaptors in the system, and the level of post-tensioning force. The influence of all these components on the performance of Pres-Lam wall systems under gravity and lateral loads was investigated in this research project. The research project consisted on two main parts: material tests and system tests. In the material tests part of the program, a total of 110 compression tests were conducted to determine the load-deformation properties of four different engineered wood products (LVL, LSL, Glulam and CLT) in various directions. The LVL, LSL and Glulam specimens tested under compression parallel to grain had similar linear elastic behaviour with limited ductility. The CLT specimens tested under compression in the major-axis direction had linear elastic behaviour with moderate plasticity. Depending on the type of engineered wood product, typical failure modes included crushing, shear, wedge split and splitting. The compressive strength of the products tested ranged from 42.1 to 53.5 MPa, the global MOE (of the entire specimen under compression) varied between 6390 and 9554 MPa, the local (near the crushing surface) MOE parallel to grain was in the range of 2211 to 5090 MPa, while the local to global MOE ratio ranged from 29.2 to 58.0%, and was higher with the increase in the oven-dry density. The specimens of the four different engineered wood products tested under compression perpendicular to grain or in the minor-axis direction had elastic-plastic behaviour with a clearly defined plastic plateau. Crushing (densification) of the fibres perpendicular to grain was the main failure mode for all specimens, and was in some cases followed by in-plane shear failure or cracking perpendicular to grain. Compression parallel to grain in the middle layer that was followed by its delamination and buckling was a unique failure mode for CLT specimens tested under compression in the minor strength direction. The compressive strength of the engineered wood products tested were in the range of 4.8 to 27.8 MPa, while the global and local MOE perpendicular to grain were in the range of 244 to 2555 MPa, and 320 to 1726 MPa, respectively. The compressive strength and global MOE perpendicular to grain increased with an increase in the oven-dry density. The results show no well-defined trend for the local MOE perpendicular to grain. The specimens loaded in the centre perpendicular to grain had higher strength, global and local MOE than those loaded at the end. A convenient and timesaving design for the axial energy dissipators (fuses) was developed by replacing the epoxy in the original design with two half-tubes. Compared to the original design of fuses with epoxy, the new design with two half-tubes had similar necking failure mode and a longer failure displacment, thus providing user-friendly fuses that performed similar or even better than the original design. In the system tests part of the program, a total of 17 different PT and Pres-Lam CLT walls with six different configurations were tested under monotonic and reversed cyclic loading. The studied parameters included the level of PT force, the position of the fuses, and the number of UFPs. CLT shear walls subjected only to post-tensioning, had non-linear elastic behaviour. The behaviour of the PT walls with and without energy dissipators was relatively similar under monotonic and cyclic loading. The strength degradation observed during the cyclic tests was low in all wall configurations suggesting that very little damage was inflicted upon the structure during the first cycles at any deformation level. Four major failure modes, including yielding and buckling of fuse, crushing and splitting of wood at the end of wall, and buckling of lumber in the exterior-layer of CLT wall, were observed in the tests. The yielding in fuses occurred at the early stage of loading as designed and the other failure modes happened when the lateral drift reached or beyond 2.5%. The initial stiffness of the single-panel PT CLT walls tested ranged from 1.80 to 2.31 kN/mm, the load at the decompression point and 2.5% drift were in the range of 4.2 to 14.9 kN and 32.7 to 45.9 kN, respectively. The initial stiffness of the single-panel Pres-Lam CLT walls tested ranged from 1.69 to 2.44 kN/mm, the load at the decompression point and 2.5% drift were in the range of 21.0 to 30.2 kN and 59.6 to 69.8 kN, respectively. All the mechanical properties increased with an increase in the PT force. The average initial stiffness and the load at 2.5% drift of the coupled-panel Pres-Lam CLT walls tested were 4.59 kN/mm and 151.3 kN, respectively, while the load at the decompression point increased from 58.4 to 69.7 kN by increasing the number of UFP. The test results show that the behaviour of the Pre-Lam CLT shear walls can be de-coupled and a “superposition rule” can be applied to obtain the stiffness and resistance of such system. The test results gave a valuable insight into the structural behaviour of the PT and Pres-Lam CLT shear wall under in-plane lateral loads. The data from the testing will be used in the future for development of numerical computer models. They will also be used for development of design guidelines for this system. All tests conducted in this study and the analyses in the future modelling research will form the basis for developing future design guidelines for PT and Pres-Lam mass timber systems.
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Alternative uses of post-harvest woody debris biomass

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub49507
Auteur
Ristea, Catalin
Date
March 2017
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Fibre Supply
the potential to be used as renewable biomass feedstocks (Figure 3) that could help improve energy supplies
Auteur
Ristea, Catalin
Date
March 2017
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
13 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Harvesting
Logging
Fire
Biomass
Wildlife
Energy
FPI TR
Série
Technical Report ; TR 2017 n.56
Langue
English
Résumé
Current forest management policy in many jurisdictions in North America manages excess woody debris by piling and burning it, mainly as a post-harvest fire hazard abatement obligation. This study highlights three key points to consider regarding utilization and disposal of waste wood piles: 1) Allocate most woody debris waste to the biofuels sector in a cost-effective manner; 2) Allocate a small portion of woody debris (e.g. 10-15%) to implement windrow habitats where necessary to maintain mammalian biodiversity on clearcuts; 3) Limit burning of waste wood to those sites near human activity (potential fire hazard) that do not have an opportunity for biofuels or windrow purposes.
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Analysis and characterization of forest materials as a fuel source

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub1826
Auteur
Kryla, J.M.
Date
March 1983
Édition
38346
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Kryla, J.M.
Date
March 1983
Édition
38346
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
22 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Wood waste
Wood
Research
Power supply
Energy
Measurement
Biomass
Série
6043250
E-1099
Localisation
Ottawa, Ontario
Langue
English
Résumé
Wood Waste - Combustion - Measurement
Wood Waste as Fuel - Research
Forest Biomass - Combustion - Measurement
Calorific power
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An overview on retrofit for improving building energy efficiency

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub44228
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Ranger, Lindsay
Date
December 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Ranger, Lindsay
Collaborateur
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
December 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
54 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Building construction
Energy
Thermal properties
Série
W3268
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
This literature review aims to provide a general picture of retrofit needs, markets, and commonly used strategies and measures to reduce building energy consumption, and is primarily focused on energy retrofit of the building envelope. Improving airtightness and thermal performance are the two key aspects for improving energy performance of the building envelope and subsequently reducing the energy required for space heating or cooling. This report focuses on the retrofit of single family houses and wood-frame buildings and covers potential use of wood-based systems in retrofitting the building envelope of concrete and steel buildings. Air sealing is typically the first step and also one of the most cost-effective measures to improving energy performance of the building envelope. Airtightness can be achieved through sealing gaps in the existing air barrier, such as polyethylene or drywall, depending on the air barrier approach; or often more effectively, through installing a new air barrier, such as an airtight exterior sheathing membrane or continuous exterior insulation during retrofit. Interface detailing is always important to achieve continuity and effectiveness of an air barrier. For an airtight building, mechanical ventilation is needed to ensure good indoor air quality and heat recovery ventilators are typically required for an energy efficient building. Improving thermal resistance of the building envelope is the other key strategy to improve building energy efficiency during retrofit. This can be achieved by: 1. blowing or injecting insulation into an existing wall or a roof; 2. building extra framing, for example, by creating double-stud exterior walls to accommodate more thermal insulation; or, 3. by installing continuous insulation, typically on the exterior. Adding exterior insulation is a major solution to improving thermal performance of the building envelope, particularly for large buildings. When highly insulated building envelope assemblies are built, more attention is required to ensure good moisture performance. An increased level of thermal insulation generally increases moisture risk due to increased vapour condensation potential but reduced drying ability. Adding exterior insulation can make exterior structural components warmer and consequently reduce vapour condensation risk in a heating climate. However, the vapour permeance of exterior insulation may also affect the drying ability and should be taken into account in design. Overall energy retrofit remains a tremendous potential market since the majority of existing buildings were built prior to implementation of any energy requirement and have large room available for improving energy performance. However, significant barriers exist, mostly associated with retrofit cost. Improving energy performance of the building envelope typically has a long payback time depending on the building, climate, target performance, and measures taken. Use of wood-based products during energy retrofit also needs to be further identified and developed.
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La biomasse forestière 1 : une ressource énergétique renouvelable

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub8559
Auteur
Mercier, Guyta
Date
2008
Genre du document
Article
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Mercier, Guyta
Date
2008
Genre du document
Article
Description physique
2 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Bioenergy
Energy
Carbohydrates
Bioénergie
Carburant
Energie
Série
OT 110
Langue
English
Résumé
This article is the first in a series series on different aspects of the aspects of research conducted at the at the Canadian Forest Service and FPInnovations and FPInnovations in the area of forest forest biomass. This introduction will be followed by more more detailed articles on the quality and quality and quantity of forest biomass available, harvesting methods, transportation transportation and storage methods, biomass transformation of biomass for energy for energy purposes, as well as the ecological ecological role of biomass in the the carbon cycle.
Résumé
Cet article est le premier d’une série portant sur différents aspects de la recherche effectuée au Service canadien des forêts et chez FPInnovations dans le domaine de la biomasse forestière. Cette introduction sera suivie d’articles plus détaillés sur la qualité et la quantité de biomasse forestière disponible, les méthodes de récolte, de transport et d’entreposage, la transformation de la biomasse à des fins énergétiques, ainsi que le rôle écologique de la biomasse dans le cycle du carbone.
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La biomasse forestière 8 : des développements au Québec

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub8600
Auteur
Tousignant, Aude
Date
2010
Genre du document
Pamphlet
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Tousignant, Aude
Date
2010
Genre du document
Pamphlet
Description physique
2 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Biomass
Research
Energy
Experimental design
Biomasse
Recherches
Service canadien des forêts
Dispositifs expérimentaux
Energie
Série
OT 136
Langue
English
Résumé
Interest in forest biomass is growing in Quebec, a trend also observed elsewhere in the world. Without claiming to present an exhaustive inventory of projects underway in Quebec, this article illustrates the dynamism of the to implement projects related to forest biomass harvesting. Various questions are also raised about the quantity of available, harvesting methods and their costs, and the environmental effects of harvesting forest biomass. environmental effects of forest biomass harvesting. The research provides some answers to these questions, thereby increasing the acceptability to society of this harvest.
Résumé
L’intérêt pour la biomasse forestière est grandissant au Québec, une tendance également observée ailleurs dans le monde. Sans prétendre présenter un inventaire exhaustif des projets en cours au Québec, cet article illustre le dynamisme du milieu à mettre en place des projets en lien avec la récolte de biomasse forestière. Différentes questions sont par ailleurs soulevées quant à la quantité de biomasse forestière disponible, aux méthodes de récolte et à leurs coûts ainsi qu’aux effets environnementaux de la récolte de biomasse forestière. La recherche fournit des éléments de réponses à ces questions, augmentant ainsi l’acceptabilité par la société de ce prélèvement.
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Building envelope thermal bridging guide : analysis, applications & insights

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub44179
Auteur
FPInnovations
Date
June 2014
Genre du document
guide
manual
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
FPInnovations
Collaborateur
BC Hydro
Canadian Wood Council
Fortis BC
Morrison Hershfield Ltd.
Homeowner Protection Office (HPO), a branch of BC Housing
Date
June 2014
Genre du document
guide
manual
Description physique
870 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
British Columbia
Building construction
Design
Energy
Thermal properties
Langue
English
Résumé
This guide explores how the building industry in British Columbia can meet the challenges of reducing energy use in buildings, in part by effectively accounting for the impact of thermal bridging. Most practitioners will find PART1 and Appendices A and B to be most useful. PART 1 outlines how to effectively account for thermal bridging. Appendices A and B provide a catalog of common building envelope assemblies and interface details, and their associated thermal performance data. Researchers and regulators will be interested in PART 2 and PART 3, and Appendices C to E. They contain the cost-benefit analysis, and discussion on significance and further insights, of using this guide to mitigate thermal bridging in buildings.
[Available to the public: http://www.bchydro.com/powersmart/business/programs/new-construction.html?WT.mc_id=rd_construction]
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Camions au gaz naturel liquéfié pour le secteur forestier

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub8350
Auteur
Mercier, Guyta
Roy, Vincent
Date
2014
Genre du document
Technical note
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Mercier, Guyta
Roy, Vincent
Date
2014
Genre du document
Technical note
Description physique
2 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Gases
Liquid fuel
Energy efficiency
Gaz naturel liquéfié
GNL
Economie de carburant
Sécurité
Entretien
GES
Efficacité énergétique
Série
OT 200
Langue
French
Résumé
Natural gas trucks have been around for a long time, but recent technological improvements and improvements in technology and increases in the cost of diesel fuel have created a interest in these vehicles. In addition to potential cost savings, natural gas trucks potential cost savings, natural gas trucks can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 25% compared to diesel. Thanks to recent developments in natural gas extraction processes, North American reserves have North American reserves have increased dramatically and better prices are now possible in the prices are now possible in the long term.
Résumé
Les camions au gaz naturel ne datent pas d’hier, mais les récentes améliorations technologiques et les hausses du coût du diesel ont créé un regain d’intérêt pour ces véhicules. En plus d’offrir des économies de coût potentielles, les camions au gaz naturel peuvent réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) jusqu’à 25% par rapport au diesel. Grâce aux récents développements dans les procédés d’extraction du gaz naturel, les réserves nord-américaines ont augmenté de façon marquée et des prix plus avantageux sont maintenant envisageables à long terme.
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71 notices – page 1 of 8.