Passer en-tête et de la navigation

18 notices – page 1 de 2.

Essai d'un humidimètre NIR pour mesurer la teneur en humidité de bois feuillu

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub5777
Auteur
Lavoie, Vincent
Lejeune, Claude
Tanguay, F.
Dupont, Danick
Ding, Feng
Date
March 2013
Édition
39752
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Auteur
Lavoie, Vincent
Lejeune, Claude
Tanguay, F.
Dupont, Danick
Ding, Feng
Collaborateur
CRIQ
Date
March 2013
Édition
39752
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
27 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Sujet
Drying
Moisture content
Hardwoods
Localisation
Québec, Québec
Langue
French
Résumé
Le mandat du projet consiste en la réalisation d’essais avec un équipement d’acquisition générique NIR (Near Infrared) dans le but de développer des modèles mathématiques pouvant être utilisés pour déterminer le taux d’humidité des planches de bois franc pour quatre essences : le chêne rouge, l’érable à sucre, le merisier et l’érable argenté. Une fois les modèles développés les objectifs plus spécifiques sont d’évaluer le niveau de précision de mesure de la teneur en humidité sur du bois parfaitement équilibré ainsi que déterminer les impacts sur les lectures provenant des facteurs suivants : l’essence, la densité, la qualité de surface, la température du bois, le gradient de teneur en humidité ainsi que la vitesse de passage des planches. Finalement, des essais doivent être réalisés sur du bois provenant directement de l’industrie et n’ayant subi aucun traitement d’équilibrage en laboratoire pour connaître le niveau de précision de lecture dans ces conditions.
MOISTURE METERS
HARDWOODS
Documents
Moins de détails

Moisture meters from biomass

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub39754
Auteur
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
November 2013
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
November 2013
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
16 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Biomass
Moisture content
Sampling
Measurement
Heat
Advantage
Série
Advantage ; Vol. 14, No. 5
Langue
English
ISSN
14933381
Résumé
One of the challenges to the use of biomass in heat applications is to find a suitable technology to take quick and accurate moisture content (MC) measurements of comminuted forest biomass. In this study, we tested three difference technologies (electric, nuclear and infrared) and five different tools. Of the three technologies tested, electric is the most promising. It is usually inexpensive (<$1000), requires small-sized samples (10 L), is fast to read (<1 minute) and is relatively accurate with more than 70% of measurements within 5% MC of the oven-dried method.
BIOMASS
MOISTURE CONTENT
TECHNOLOGY
ELECTRIC ANALYZERS
NUCLEAR RADIATION
INFRARED DETECTORS
ACCURACY
MEASUREMENT
TIME
Sample size
Documents
Moins de détails

Quantifying the impacts of moisture and load on vertical movement in a simulated bottom floor of a 6-storey platform frame building

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub39705
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
King, L.
Date
March 2013
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
and constructed, with built-in vertical movement and moisture content monitoring systems. The two structures were
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
King, L.
Collaborateur
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
30 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Buildings
Building construction
Moisture content
Test methods
Série
Transformative Technologies Project No.301006157
W-3006
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
Vertical movement of wood frame buildings has become an important consideration in recent years with the increase of building height in Europe, North America, and Asia up to 6-storeys. This movement is composed of wood shrinkage and load-induced movement including initial settlement and creep. It is extremely difficult to identify the relative contributions of these components while monitoring full size buildings. A laboratory test was therefore designed to do this under controlled environmental and loading conditions. Two identical small-scale platform frame structures with dimensional lumber floor joists were designed and constructed, with built-in vertical movement and moisture content monitoring systems. The two structures were first conditioned in a chamber to achieve an initial moisture content (MC) about 20% to simulate typical MC on exposed construction sites in wintertime in Coastal BC. After the two structures were moved from the conditioning chamber into the laboratory environment, using a unique cantilever system, Structure No. 1 was immediately loaded to measure the combined shrinkage and deformation in the process of drying. Structure No. 2 was not loaded until after the wood had dried to interior equilibrium moisture content to observe the shrinkage and load-induced movement separately. The load applied on the two structures simulated a dead load experienced by the bottom floor of a six-storey wood frame building. The vertical movement and MC changes were monitored over a total period of six months. Meanwhile, shrinkage coefficients were measured by using end-matched lumber samples cut from the plate members of the two structures to predict the shrinkage amounts of the horizontal members of the two structures. The results suggested that a load must be applied for movement to “show up” and occur in a downward direction. Without loads other than the wood weight, even shrinkage could show as upward movement. Monitoring of Structure No. 1 appeared to separate the contributions of wood shrinkage, initial settlement (bedding-in movement), and creep reasonably well. The entire movement amount reached about 19 mm after six months, which was comparable to the vertical movement measured from the bottom floor of a 4-storey wood-frame building in BC. Shrinkage accounted for over 60% of the vertical movement, with the other 40% contributed by load-induced movement including initial settlement and creep (when elastic compression was neglected); the magnitude of creep was similar to the initial settlement amount. Structure No. 2 showed less vertical movement but an increased settlement amount at the time of loading, indicating the presence of larger gaps between members when the wood was dry (with an estimated MC of 11%) before loading. Depending on construction sequencing, such settlement should occur with increase in loads during construction and can therefore be ignored in design. However, this test suggested that there may be a need to consider the impact of creep, in wet climates in particular, in addition to wood shrinkage. This laboratory test will be maintained for a longer period to observe any further vertical movement and the relative contributions of shrinkage and creep. Similar tests should be conducted for structures built with engineered wood floor joists, given the fact that most mid-rise platform buildings use engineered wood floor joists instead of lumber joists.
Documents
Moins de détails

Critical biomass attributes of the most common bioenergy and biofuel applications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub39735
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Bioproducts
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
common bioenergy and biofuel applications Keywords Biomass, Biofuel, Bioenergy, Moisture content
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
12 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Bioproducts
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Biomass
Bioenergy
Moisture content
Physical properties
Advantage
Série
Advantage ; Vol. 14, No. 3
Langue
English
ISSN
14933381
Résumé
This primer presents critical attributes such as format and size; moisture content; bulk density; foliage/bark content; contamination; ash, lignin, carbohydrate, and extractive contents; and calorific value of the most common bioenergy and biofuel applications; direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, fermentation, and densification. The primer is aimed at forestry, wood processing, pulp and paper, and biomass professionals who are interested in basic information about these critical attributes.
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Documents
Moins de détails

Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : design and detailing solutions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub6025
Auteur
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Édition
42994
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Collaborateur
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Édition
42994
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
13 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Série
W-3075
Langue
English
Résumé
Most buildings are designed to accommodate a certain range of movement. In design, it is important for designers to identify locations where potential differential movement could affect structural integrity and serviceability, predict the amount of differential movement and develop proper detailing to accommodate it. To allow non-structural materials to be appropriately constructed, an estimate of anticipated differential movement should be provided in the design drawings. Simply specifying wood materials with lower MC at time of delivery does not guarantee that the wood will not get wet on construction sites and will deliver lower shrinkage amounts as anticipated. It is therefore important to ensure that wood does not experience unexpected wetting during storage, transportation and construction. Good construction sequencing also plays an important role in reducing wetting, the consequent wood shrinkage and other moisture-related issues. Existing documents such as the APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin on 5- and 6-Storey Wood Frame Residential Building Projects, the Best Practice Guide published by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), the Building Enclosure Design Guide –Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings published by the BC Housing- Homeowner Protection Office (HPO) provide general design guidance on how to reduce and accommodate differential movement in platform frame construction.
Documents
Moins de détails

Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : basics

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub6026
Auteur
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Édition
42995
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
D P L A T F O R M F R A M E S T R U C T U R E S: B a si c s Wood moisture content
Auteur
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Collaborateur
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Édition
42995
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
10 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Série
W-3076
Langue
English
Résumé
Movement in structures due to environmental condition changes and loads must be considered in design. Temperature changes will cause movement in concrete, steel and masonry structures. For wood materials, movement is primarily related to shrinkage or swelling caused by moisture loss or gain when the moisture content is below 28% (wood fiber saturation point). Other movement in wood structures may also include: settlement (bedding-in movement) due to closing of gaps between members and deformation due to compression loads, including instantaneous elastic deformation and creep. Differential movement can occur where wood frame is connected to rigid components such as masonry cladding, concrete elevator shafts, mechanical services and plumbing, and where mixed wood products such as lumber, timbers, and engineered wood products are used. Evidence from long-term wood frame construction practices shows that for typical light frame construction up to three storeys high, differential movement can be relatively easily accommodated such as through specifying “S-Dry” lumber. However, differential movement over the height of wood-frame buildings becomes a very important consideration for taller buildings due to its cumulative effect. The APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin provides general design guidance and recommends the use of engineered wood products and dimension lumber with 12% moisture content for floor joists to reduce and accommodate differential movement in 5 and 6-storey wood frame buildings. Examples of differential movement concerns and solutions in wood-frame buildings can also be found in the Best Practice Guide published by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the Building Enclosure Design Guide –Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings published by the Homeowner Protection Office of BC Housing. This document illustrates the causes and other basic information related to vertical movement in wood platform frame buildings and recommendations on material handling and construction sequencing to protect wood from rain and reduce the vertical movement.
Documents
Moins de détails

Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : movement prediction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub6027
Auteur
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Édition
42996
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Collaborateur
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Édition
42996
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
9 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Série
W-3077
Langue
English
Résumé
It is not possible or practical to precisely predict the vertical movement of wood structures due to the many factors involved in construction. It is, however, possible to obtain a good estimate of the vertical movement to avoid structural, serviceability, and building envelope problems over the life of the structure. Typically “S-Dry” and “S-Grn” lumber will continue to lose moisture during storage, transportation and construction as the wood is kept away from liquid water sources and adapts to different atmospheric conditions. For the purpose of shrinkage prediction, it is usually customary to assume an initial moisture content (MC) of 28% for “S-Green” lumber and 19% for “S-Dry” lumber. “KD” lumber is assumed to have an initial MC of 15% in this series of fact sheets. Different from solid sawn wood products, Engineered Wood Products (EWP) are usually manufactured with MC levels close to or even lower than the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in service. Plywood, Oriented Strand Board (OSB), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) are usually manufactured at MC levels ranging from 6% to 12%. Engineered wood I-joists are made using kiln dried lumber (usually with moisture content below 15%) or structural composite lumber (such as LVL) flanges and plywood or OSB webs, therefore they are usually drier and have lower shrinkage than typical “S-Dry” lumber floor joists. Glued-laminated timbers (Glulam) are manufactured at MC levels from 11% to 15%, so are the recently-developed Cross-laminated Timbers (CLT). For all these products, low shrinkage can be achieved and sometimes small amounts of swelling can be expected in service if their MC at manufacturing is lower than the service EMC. In order to fully benefit from using these dried products including “S-Dry” lumber and EWP products, care must be taken to prevent them from wetting such as by rain during shipment, storage and construction. EWPs may also have lower shrinkage coefficients than solid wood due to the adhesives used during manufacturing and the more mixed grain orientations in the products, including the use of cross-lamination of veneers (plywood) or lumber (CLT). The APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin emphasizes the use of EWP and dimension lumber with 12% moisture content for the critical horizontal members to reduce differential movement in 5 and 6-storey wood frame buildings.
Documents
Moins de détails

Design example : wood diaphragm using envelope method

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub6031
Auteur
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Édition
43000
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Collaborateur
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Édition
43000
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
14 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Série
W-3081
Langue
English
Résumé
N/A
Documents
Moins de détails

Caractéristiques cruciales de la biomasse pour les applications les plus courantes en bioénergie et biocarburants

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub3102
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Édition
39759
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Bioproducts
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Date
September 2013
Édition
39759
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
12 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Bioproducts
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Biomass
Bioenergy
Moisture content
Physical properties
Advantage
Série
Avantage ; Vol. 14, No. 3
Langue
French
ISSN
14933381
Résumé
Le présent document décrit les caractéristiques cruciales de la biomasse comme le format et la taille, la teneur en dumidité, la densité apparente, la teneur en feuillage/écorce, la contamination, la teneur en cendres, en lignine, en dydratesde carbone et en produitsd'extraction ainsi que la valeur calorifique pour les applications les plus courantes de production de bioénergie et de biocarburants : combustions directe, gazéification, pyrolyse, torréfacgtion, fermentation et densification. Le document est distiné aux professionnels de la foresterie, de la transformation du bois, des pâtes et papiers et de la biomasse qui cherchent de l'information de base sur ces caractéristiques essentielles.
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Documents
Moins de détails

Design example : designing for openings in wood diaphragm

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub6030
Auteur
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Date
October 2013
Édition
42999
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Collaborateur
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Édition
42999
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
36 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Série
W-3080
Langue
English
Documents
Moins de détails

18 notices – page 1 of 2.