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Instrumentation for monitoring performance in a six-storey building in Vancouver built for high energy performance

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub7512
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Thomas, Tony
Date
March 2018
Édition
49833
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Thomas, Tony
Collaborateur
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2018
Édition
49833
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
24 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Monitoring
Performance
Buildings
Energy
Moisture content
Air
Série
Transformative Technology ; TT 2018
Langue
English
Résumé
This report documents the instrumentation installed for monitoring moisture, indoor air quality and differential movement performance in a six-storey building located in the City of Vancouver. The building has five storeys of wood-frame construction above a concrete podium, providing 85 rental units for residential and commercial use. It was designed and built to meet the Passive House standard and, once certified, will be the largest building in Canada that meets this rigorous energy standard. Although the design and construction focused on integrating a number of innovative measures to improve energy efficiency, much effort was also made to reduce construction costs. One example of the design measures is the use of a highly insulating exterior wall assembly that integrates rigid insulation between two rows of wall studs as interior air and vapour barriers. This monitoring study aims to generate data on long-term performance as part of FPInnovations’ effort to assist the building sector in developing durable and energy efficient wood-based buildings, which is expected to translate into reduced energy consumption and carbon emissions from the built environment. The monitoring focuses on measuring moisture performance of the building envelope (i.e., exterior walls, roof, and sill plates); indoor environmental quality including temperature, humidity, and CO2; and vertical differential movement between exterior walls and interior walls below roof/roof decks. In total, 79 instruments were installed during the construction. The next steps of this study will focus on collecting and analysing data from the sensors installed, and assessing performance related to the building envelope and vertical differential movement. FPInnovations will also collaborate with CanmetENERGY of Natural Resources Canada to monitor heat recovery ventilators and to assess whole-building energy efficiency and occupant comfort. This is expected to start after the mechanical systems are fully commissioned during occupancy. Results of these upcoming phases of work will be published in future reports.
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Moisture evaluation and veneer peeling of douglas fir and spruce logs from different mills and log yard age inventories

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub49466
Auteur
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2017
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Auteur
Semple, Katherine
Dai, Chunping
Date
August 2017
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
69 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Sujet
Moisture content
Veneer
Fir
Spruce
Storing
Langue
English
Résumé
A total of 48 peeler blocks and 256 mini-billets were sampled from mills to investigate the effects of yard storage time, and artificial yard drying and sprinkling on residual moisture contents (MCs) and veneer quality. MC in fresh and stored log inventories varied greatly across mills according to geographic location of their wood supply zones, bark damage and loss, and storage time and conditions. The main findings were as follows: 1. DF logs supplied by three BC mills from the Cariboo, Thompson Okanagan, or Kootenay regions were highly variable in wood MC. 2. Winter-cut DF logs with high sapwood MC stored had good bark retention and high moisture retention over 6 and 9 winter-spring months. No effects on veneer peeling roughness from longer-term winter storage up to 9 months. 3. Summer-cut logs had little or no residual bark, or the bark slipped off very easily during debarking. Exposed, bark-free summer-cut logs can dry and crack on edges and ends very quickly, within a few weeks. 4. A marked decline in veneer quality with piling time in Summer for spruce and DF, suggesting an optimum window of processing of such exposed logs of about two weeks. Veneer quality and recovery suffered markedly once the logs had fully air dried mainly because of edge splits creating natural fragmentation of the ribbon. 5. Mills receiving dry-zone logs with much lower MC have a very limited storage window, especially over winter. As little as 2-3 weeks if bark is damaged or missing. 6. Veneer quality could not be definitively tied to log residual MC. Under the controlled laboratory conditions used here it was observed that peeling quality could still be good at low sapwood MC (35-40%) and or very high (MC>100%). Whether this is still the case in mill production is unknown. 7. Logs must never be allowed to fall below FSP and develop edge-checks or deep end checks. 8. Wax emulsion end sealants were effective at hampering drying and end checking on high MC logs, but not effective on low MC logs. 9. Sprinkling retained log freshness and peel quality in high MC DF for several months and prevented log drying and end splitting as well as inner log staining. Ends absorbed considerable extra moisture. Some variability in peel quality was noted. 10. The prototype EM1000 Ground Penetrating Radar could only be reliably used in log edge mode in DF. The unit would also require re-calibration for the very high sapwood MC in spruce and wet-zone DF logs.
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Payer la biomasse à sa juste valeur

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub8228
Auteur
Mercier, Guyta
Volpe, Sylvain
Date
2017
Genre du document
Pamphelet
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Mercier, Guyta
Volpe, Sylvain
Date
2017
Genre du document
Pamphelet
Description physique
2 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Energy consumption
Standards
Moisture content
Valeur énergétique
Critères de qualité
Teneur en humidité
FPJoule
Pouvoir calorifique
Bioénergie
Biocarburants
Système de classification
Série
OT 251
Langue
French
Résumé
It is well known that the forest biomass used to supply the energy sector must meet the quality standards of energy production facilities. These standards relate to moisture content (TH), particle size, fine particle content and degree of contamination. Customers have their own requirements, which sometimes differ from each other, and the supplier must meet them. The development of a payment system based on quality criteria and energy value seems obvious, but not everything is the obvious, but it is not that simple.
Résumé
C’est connu: la biomasse forestière utilisée pour approvisionner le secteur de l’énergie doit répondre aux standards de qualité propres aux installations productrices d’énergie. Ces standards concernent la teneur en humidité (TH), la grosseur des particules, la teneur en particules fines et le degré de contamination. Les clients ont leurs exigences, qui diffèrent parfois les uns des autres, et le fournisseur doit les respecter. Le développement d’un système de paiement basé sur les critères de qualité et la valeur énergétique apparait comme une évidence, mais tout n’est pas si simple.
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Taller and larger wood buildings : potential impacts of wetting on performance of mass timber buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub40151
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Date
March 2016
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Collaborateur
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2016
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
43 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
Building construction
Laminate product
Moisture content
Performance
Wood frame
Série
W3279
Localisation
Vancouver, British Columbia
Langue
English
Résumé
This report summarizes basic wood-moisture relationships, and reviews conditions conducive to adverse consequences of wetting, such as staining, mold growth, decay, strength reduction, and dimensional change and distortion. It also outlines solutions and available resources related to on-site moisture management and design measures. Sorption, including desorption (i.e., loss of moisture) and adsorption (i.e., gain of moisture), is the interaction of wood with the water vapour in the ambient environment. The consequent changes in the amount of bound moisture (or “hygroscopic moisture”) of pre-dried wood affect the physical and mechanical properties. However, the core of a mass timber responds slowly and is well protected from fluctuations in the service environment. Mold growth and fungal staining may occur in a damp environment with a high relative humidity or sources of water. Sorption alone does not increase the moisture content (MC) of pre-dried wood above the fibre saturation point and does not lead to decay. Wood changes its MC more quickly when it absorbs water compared with sorption. This introduces free water (or “capillary water”) and increases the MC above the fiber saturation point. Research has shown that decay does not start below a MC of 26%, when all other conditions are favourable for fungal growth. Decay can cause significant strength reduction, for toughness and impact bending in particular. For a wood member in service, the effect of decay is very complicated and depends on factors, such as the size of a member, loading condition, fungi involved, location and intensity of the attack. Appearance of decay does not reflect true residual stiffness or strength. For wood-based composites severe wetting without decay may affect the structural properties and performance due to damage to the bonding provided by the adhesive inside. There are large variations among wood species, products and assemblies in their tendency to trap moisture and maintain durability. For a given wood species, the longitudinal direction (vs. the transverse directions) and the sapwood (vs. heartwood) absorb water more quickly. Capillaries between unglued joints (e.g., some CLT, glulam), exposed end grains, and interconnected voids inside a product increase the likelihoods of moisture entrapment, slow drying, and consequently decay. Many mass timber products, composites in particular, may be modified to reduce these issues. Measures should also be taken in design, during construction, or building operation to reduce the moisture risk and increase the drying ability. It is also important to facilitate detection of water leaks in a mass timber building and to make it easier to repair and replace members in case damage occurs. Preservative-treated or naturally durable wood should be used for applications that are subjected to high moisture risk. Localized on-site treatment may be appropriate for specific vulnerable locations. Changing environmental conditions may cause issues, such as checking, although it does not compromise the structural integrity in most cases. Measures may be taken to allow the timbers to adjust to the service conditions slowly (e.g., through humidity control), particularly in the first year of service. Overall there is very little information about the potential impacts that various wetting scenarios during construction and in service could realistically have on mass timber products and systems. The wetting and drying behaviour, impacts of wetting and biological attack on the structural capacity, and the behaviour under extreme environmental conditions, such as the very dry service environment that occurs during the winter in a northern continent, should be assessed to improve design of mass timber buildings.
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Tarping of pulp log decks to maintain low moisture content: interim report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub40007
Auteur
Spencer, Stuart
Date
April 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Spencer, Stuart
Date
April 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Forestry
Sujet
Biomass
Moisture content
Drying
Storing
Logs
FOP Technical Report
FPI TR
Série
Technical Report ; TR 2015 n.14
Langue
English
Résumé
FPInnovations, in cooperation with BC Timber Sales and Coast Tsimshian Resources, is in the process of performing a tarping trial in an attempt to maintain low moisture content of pulp logs in the Terrace region.
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Kiln drying of SPF dimension lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub7505
Auteur
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
April 2015
Édition
49807
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
.................................................................................................................................................. 9 3.1 Moisture Content Distribution
Auteur
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
April 2015
Édition
49807
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
17 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Sujet
Lumber
Spruce Pine Fir
Drying
Moisture content
Langue
English
Résumé
In British Columbia, due to the decline of lodgepole pine, mills should expect higher volumes of sub-alpine fir in their species mix. The impact on drying is significant. For example, drying times for green SPF (spruce, pine, sub-alpine fir) vary from 24 to 36 hours whereas drying times for sub-alpine fir can easily exceed 70 hours. In addition to longer drying times, the drying of species such as sub-alpine fir using current procedures often results in wet lumber and value loss can be higher than $100 per Mfbm. The potential annual impact for a typical BC mill is estimated to be in the range $1,000,000 to $1,500,000. Along the years, sawmills have invested millions of dollars in drying technology (conventional drying and green sorting systems) which, for the most part are efficient and relatively low cost. Thus, under the circumstances outlined above, sawmills urgently need to find ways to minimize the problems associated with the drying of sub-alpine fir that is, new procedures or combination of methods, to ensure maximum grade recovery at the end of drying and reduce drying times (increase productivity and lower processing costs). In addition, the pressure exerted by typical longer drying times for sub-alpine fir will impact the drying of spruce and pine. Thus, strategies to speed the drying for those two species are needed to maintain annual production targets. The main objective of this project is to evaluate several strategies using existing technology so that sawmills can readily implement them throughout their drying operations dealing with larger volumes of sub-alpine fir and for mills with kiln capacity constraints which could compromise their production targets.
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Field measurement of vertical movement and roof moisture performance of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre : instrumentation and first year's performance

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub44205
Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Date
March 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
PDF
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Auteur
Wang, Jieying
Collaborateur
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
39 p.
Secteur
Wood Products
Domaine
Sustainable Construction
Champ de recherche
Advanced Wood Materials
Sujet
British Columbia
Building construction
Laminate product
Moisture content
Performance
Test methods
Série
301008940
Langue
English
Résumé
Two of the major topics of interest to those designing taller and larger wood buildings are the susceptibility to differential movement and the likelihood of mass timber components drying slowly after they are wetted during construction. The Wood Innovation and Design Centre in Prince George, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. Field measurements also provide performance data to support regulatory and market acceptance of wood-based systems in tall and large buildings. This report first describes instrumentation to measure the vertical movement of selected glulam columns and cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls in this building. Three locations of glulam columns and one CLT wall of the core structure were selected for measuring vertical movement along with the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) in the immediate vicinity. The report then describes instrumentation to measure the moisture changes in the wood roof structure. Six locations in the roof were selected and instrumented for measuring moisture changes in the wood as well as the local environmental conditions. All sensors and instrumentations, with the exception of one, were installed and became operational in the middle of March 2014, after the roof sheathing was installed. The other instrumentation was installed in July 2014. This report presents performance of the building during its first year as measured from topping out of the structure. In the end, the one-year period covers six months of construction and six months of occupancy. This is the first year of a planned five-year monitoring. The first year’s monitoring showed that the wood inside the building had reached moisture content (MC) of about 4-6% in the heating season, from an initial MC of 13% during construction. Glulam columns were extremely dimensionally stable given the changes in MC and loading conditions. With a height of over 5 m and 6 m, respectively, the two glulam columns measured in this study showed very small amounts of vertical movement, each below 2 mm. The cumulative shortening of the six glulam columns along the height of the building would be about 8 mm, not taking into account deformation at connection details or effects of reduced loads on upper floors. The CLT wall was found to be also dimensionally stable along the height of the building. The measurements showed that the entire CLT wall, from Floor 1 to Floor 6, would shorten about 14 mm. The CLT floors, however, had considerable shrinkage in the thickness direction, and therefore should be taken into consideration in the design and construction of components, such as curtain walls, which are connected to the floors. In terms of the roof performance, two locations, both with a wet concrete layer poured above the plywood sheathing, showed wetness during construction but dried slowly afterwards. The good drying performance must be attributed to the interior ventilation function designed for the roof assemblies by integrating strapping between the sheathing and the mass timber beams below. Overall this monitoring study shows the differential movement occurring among the glulam columns and the CLT wall is small and the wood roof has good drying performance.
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Méthodes de base pour l’échantillonnage et l’analyse de la biomasse ligneuse

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub39994
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Volpé, Sylvain
Desrochers, Luc
Roser, Dominik
Date
January 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Bioproducts
PDF
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Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Volpé, Sylvain
Desrochers, Luc
Roser, Dominik
Date
January 2015
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
15 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Bioproducts
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Biomass
Bioenergy
Sampling
Physical properties
Moisture content
Particle size
Bulk density
Standards
Advantage
Série
Avantage ; Vol. 15, No. 5
Langue
English
Résumé
Biomass sampling and analysis play decisive roles in determining the characteristics and value of the woody biomass fuel used in bioenergy systems in Canada. Sampling and analysis standards help harmonize the procedures that are used to monitor biomass quality. Because there are no Canada- wide biomass sampling standards, facilities that produce and use woody biomass have developed and implemented in-house sampling procedures of varying degrees of complexity. Given that the use of woody biomass in Canada is predicted to increase, the ability to ensure the quality of biomass will become increasingly important in order to control costs and maximize system efficiency.
BIOMASS
Biofuels
Bioenergy
MOISTURE CONTENT
BULK DENSITY
Bark content
Contamination
ASH
Lignin
CARBOHYDRATES
EXTRACTIVES
Résumé
L’échantillonnage et l’analyse de la biomasse jouent un rôle décisif dans la détermination des caractéristiques et de la valeur des combustibles de biomasse ligneuse utilisés dans les systèmes de bioénergie au Canada. Les normes d’échantillonnage et d’analyse contribuent à harmoniser les méthodes utilisées pour évaluer la qualité de la biomasse. Il n’existe pas de normes d’échantillonnage pancanadiennes; les usines qui produisent ou utilisent la biomasse ligneuse ont donc élaboré et appliqué des méthodes d’échantillonnage maison de niveau de complexité variable. Comme on prévoit une augmentation de l’utilisation de la biomasse ligneuse au Canada, les compétences permettant de garantir sa qualité deviendront de plus en plus importantes pour limiter les coûts et maximiser l’efficacité des systèmes.
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Basic procedures for sampling and analyzing woody biomass

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub3318
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Volpé, Sylvain
Desrochers, Luc
Roser, Dominik
Date
January 2015
Édition
39982
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Bioproducts
PDF
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and Analysis of Biomass Samples Separating Biomass Samples: Coning and Quartering Analyzing the Moisture
Auteur
Marinescu, Marian
Volpé, Sylvain
Desrochers, Luc
Roser, Dominik
Date
January 2015
Édition
39982
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
15 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Bioproducts
Champ de recherche
Building Systems
Sujet
Biomass
Bioenergy
Sampling
Physical properties
Moisture content
Particle size
Bulk density
Standards
Advantage
Série
Advantage ; Vol. 15, No. 5
Langue
English
Résumé
Biomass sampling and analysis play decisive roles in determining the characteristics and value of the woody biomass fuel used in bioenergy systems in Canada. Sampling and analysis standards help harmonize the procedures that are used to monitor biomass quality. Because there are no Canada- wide biomass sampling standards, facilities that produce and use woody biomass have developed and implemented in-house sampling procedures of varying degrees of complexity. Given that the use of woody biomass in Canada is predicted to increase, the ability to ensure the quality of biomass will become increasingly important in order to control costs and maximize system efficiency.
BIOMASS
Biofuels
Bioenergy
MOISTURE CONTENT
BULK DENSITY
Bark content
Contamination
ASH
Lignin
CARBOHYDRATES
EXTRACTIVES
Résumé
L’échantillonnage et l’analyse de la biomasse jouent un rôle décisif dans la détermination des caractéristiques et de la valeur des combustibles de biomasse ligneuse utilisés dans les systèmes de bioénergie au Canada. Les normes d’échantillonnage et d’analyse contribuent à harmoniser les méthodes utilisées pour évaluer la qualité de la biomasse. Il n’existe pas de normes d’échantillonnage pancanadiennes; les usines qui produisent ou utilisent la biomasse ligneuse ont donc élaboré et appliqué des méthodes d’échantillonnage maison de niveau de complexité variable. Comme on prévoit une augmentation de l’utilisation de la biomasse ligneuse au Canada, les compétences permettant de garantir sa qualité deviendront de plus en plus importantes pour limiter les coûts et maximiser l’efficacité des systèmes.
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Évaluation de courte durée de la Kobelco BladeRunner ED150 pour la réfection des route

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/fr/permalink/fpipub39941
Auteur
Partington, Mark
Date
May 2014
Genre du document
Research report
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Auteur
Partington, Mark
Date
May 2014
Genre du document
Research report
Description physique
11 p.
Secteur
Forest Operations
Domaine
Fibre Supply
Champ de recherche
Transportation Infrastructure
Sujet
Biomass
Moisture content
Drying
Storing
Logs
Advantage
Série
Avantage ; Vol. 15, No. 1
Langue
French
ISSN
14933381
Résumé
FPInnovations performed short-term productivity studies on a road rehabilitation operation that utilized a Kobelco ED150 BladeRunner. The BladeRunner is a multi-purpose machine that can function as an excavator and a bulldozer, due to its front blade attachment. Productivity studies were also performed on an excavator (John Deere 200C) and bulldozer (Caterpillar D6M) team that performed the same work as the BladeRunner.
ROADS
MACHINERY
HARVESTERS
Résumé
FPInnovations a effectué des études de productivité à court terme dans le cadre d’une opération de remise en état de routes effectuée à l’aide d’un BladeRunner, modèle Kobelco ED150, une machine multifonctions qui peut être utilisée comme excavatrice ou bulldozer en raison de sa fixation frontale pour lames. Des études de productivité ont aussi été réalisées sur une combinaison excavatrice (John Deere 200C) et bulldozer (Caterpillar D6M) qui effectuent les même tâches que le BladeRunner.
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56 notices – page 2 of 6.