Hardwood flour was biologically converted with 3 fungal species, and ammonium lignosulfonate was biologically modified with 3 enzyme cocktails.
Ten types of panels were made of bio-modified or unmodified wood flour and ammonium lignosulfonate. All panels were manufactured at target density (850 kg/m3), temperature (220°C), pressure (300 psi) and pressing time (220 sec) without any resin and additives.
Among all formulations, the biomaterials, consisted of bio-modified hardwood flour by the fungal specie 332A, or bio-modified ammonium lignosulfonate by enzymes extracted from 76A and 329A, were most effective and showed significantly higher internal bonding (IB) strengths.
Further investigation of the bio-modification of the kraft lignin for bio-composites is conducted in 2013-2014 financial year (ongoing) and will be reported in 2013-2014.