Ophiostomatoid fungi can pose serious risks to forest health, forest product value, and forest product exports. These fungi belong to at least two different orders, six teleomorph genera and ten anamorph genera, but share similar characteristics such as transmission by insect vectors and frequent association with tree hosts. Some produce bluestain in the wood causing losses in appearance grade markets, while others are more serious pathogens that can cause disease or kill their host trees and raise phytosanitary concerns in the global market place. In an effort to keep up with the rapidly advancing taxonomic changes and knowledge gains within these fungal groups, especially in regards to their associations with insect vectors, an INSECT-FUNGI database was created in 2005 to maintain literature on these fungi as well as to facilitate rapid data mining within the collected literature in order to explore feasible ways of detecting, monitoring and controlling these fungi. In addition, in 2008 an extensive literature review looked at the DNA-based tools used to identify and taxonomically place species within these groups. That work also reviewed the latest changes in the taxonomy of Ophiostomatoid fungi. In 2009, updates were made to the database as well as to the 2008 literature review. In addition, DNA-based identification decision making trees were created to give users tools to help identify mould and staining agents. The objectives of this report were to summarize the activities and updates in regards to the Insect-Fungi database, and to review the latest literature and news in regards to taxonomy, DNA-based identification, and other relevant information pertaining to Ophiostomatoid fungi. In addition we also included an update of a few non-ophiostomatoid fungi that cause bluestain, for example Diplodia and Lasiodiplodia.
Numerous new associations between insects, hosts and ophiostomatoid fungi have been discovered in the last three years. Thirty one new species of Ophiostoma were described in 2010 and several more are in the process of being described. There are currently four genera within Ophiostomatales; however, seven more are expected to be officially accepted in the near future. In addition to the ITS region of the ribosomal DNA, more research groups are routinely utilizing the ß-tubulin gene for describing new species and species complexes. A group at UBC completed sequencing the genome of Grosmannia clavigera and described mechanisms by which this fungus can detoxify host defence compounds, as well as use host terpenoids as a carbon source giving important insights into the relationships between fungus, beetle and tree.